Belief in 'possession' or 'witchcraft' is widespread and not confined to particular countries, cultures, religions or immigrant communities.
The children involved can suffer damage to their physical and mental health, capacity to learn, ability to form relationships and self esteem.
6. Referral by Members of the Public
When members of the public are concerned about the welfare of a child or an unborn baby, they should contact the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH).
Any professional from another agency receiving a child protection referral from a member of the public must:
Advise the member of
1. Inter-Agency Collaboration
All agencies must make reasonable efforts to ensure that staff involved in child protection work are committed to:
Sharing of information;
Careful preparation for conferences, including the provision of reports;
Attendance at conferences;
Contribution to decision making;
Delivery of a
Notification of Child Death 9. Learning From Child Deaths 8. Professional and Family Support 7. Consent and Confidentiality 6. Functions of the Child Death Overview Panel 5. Notification of Child Deaths 4. Frequency of CDOP Meetings 4. Recognising Abuse and Neglect
The factors described in this section are frequently found in cases of child abuse. Their presence is not proof that abuse has occurred, but:
Must be regarded as indicators of possible Significant Harm;
Justify the need for careful assessment and discussion with designated / named / l
2. Types of Child Protection Conferences
Initial Child Protection Conference
Purpose of Initial Conference
The Initial Child Protection Conference brings together family members, the child (where appropriate), supporters / Advocates and those professionals most involved with the child and family to:
Share and evaluate in
3. Membership of Child Protection Conferences
A conference should consist of the smallest number of people consistent with effective case management, but the following should normally be invited:
Parents / carers;
Child (if of sufficient age and understanding (see Section 5, Involving Children);
Social / Lead Social Worker and te
4. Involving Parents / Carers & Family Members
Parents and carers must be invited to conferences (unless exclusion is justified as described (see Section 6, Exclusions of Family Members).
Information Provision & Planning
The social worker must facilitate their constructive involvement by ensuring in advance of the confere
5. Involving Children
The child, subject to her/his level of understanding, needs to be given the opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the conference.
In practice, the appropriateness of including an individual child must be assessed in advance and relevant arrangements made to facilitate attendanc
6. Exclusion of Family Members From a Conference
Exceptionally it may be necessary to exclude 1 or more family members from part or all of a conference.
These situations will be rare, and the conference chair, must be notified as soon as possible by the social worker if it is considered necessary to exclude one or both parents fo
7. Information for Conference
Social Work Report
The Children and Families Assessment will be the social worker’s report for an Initial Child Protection Conference. The report will include details of the section 47 enquiry.
The minutes of the most recent Core Group Meeting prior to the Review Child Prote
8. Chairing of Conference
The chair of a child protection conference:
Should be a professional with sufficient status to ensure inter-agency commitment to the conference and child protection plan;
Should be independent of operational or line management responsibilities for the case;
Is accountable to the Direc
9. Actions & Decisions of the Conference
Threshold for a Child Protection Plan
The conference should consider the following question when determining whether the child needs to be the subject of a Child Protection Plan:
Has the child suffered Significant Harm?
Is the child likely to suffer Significant Harm?
10. Challenges by Professionals
The chair of a conference is responsible for the conference decision. S/he will consult conference members and aim for a consensus, but ultimately will make the decision and note any dissenting views.
When dissent occurs, the social worker must involve that agency in future dec
5. Professional Response
Being Alert to Children's Welfare
Everybody who works or has contact with children (or pregnant women) should be able to recognise, and know how to act upon, evidence that a child's health or development (or that of the unborn baby) is or may be being impaired and especially when the
3. Categories of Abuse and Neglect
Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.
It may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a
- Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wan
8. When Families will not Engage at all
- The problems arising from these difficulties may be acute or chronic in nature. They may, in some cases, mean that long-term work proceeds more slowly than it might, whilst in another, failing to see a child as planned might mean that the child is exposed to immediate and pressing risk. It
Working in Partnership
- By working together, services can take many practical steps to protect and improve health and well being of children affected by parental substance misuse.
Liaise with relevant partner agencies, if they consider that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer Signif
- Neglect of parental responsibilities, leading to physical, emotional or psychological harm;
Family resources are used to finance the parents' dependency – this may be characterised by inadequate food, heating and clothing for the children;
Unsuitable care givers or visitors;
Did you Know?
- It is estimated that there are between 250,000 and 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK – this equates to one child for every problem drug user.
It is estimated that there are nearly a million children in the UK who are currently living with an alcohol dependant parent, often
- A feature in some serious case reviews has been the lack of co-operation and/or hostile attitude of parents/carers. When there are child welfare/protection issues, a failure to engage with the family may have serious implications and non-intervention is not an option.
2. Reasons Why Some Families Find it Difficult to Engage
- Some of the reasons why families find it difficult to engage include the following:
Previous negative experience of agencies;
Experience of intervention as a young person;
Not understanding professionals concerns;
Genuine fear- will my children be removed;
3. Definition and Recognising Difficult to Engage Behaviour
- Parents may present in a number of ways on a continuum from hostility, threats and violence through to superficial and ineffective engagement. Behaviours may include:
Ambivalence can be displayed when people are consistently late for planned appointments or they always have an excuse for m
4. Impact on Intervention
- Accurate information and clear understanding of what is happening to a child is the main focus of all work with families, the usual way to achieve this is by engagement and sharing views and working in partnership with families to plan the next step. However if families are deliberately pr
5. Important Points to Consider
- It is useful to reflect on your own practice to consider the following;
Am I colluding by avoiding conflict i.e. focusing on less contentious issues rather then asking to see if there is food in the house or speak to a child alone etc?
Am I minimising negative information in order to avoid
6. Impact on the child
- It is important to consider what impact the non engagement may be having on the life of the child. Is the child desensitised to what is going on around them? What have you or other professionals observed when you have seen the family together. How does the child act around the parents are
7. Strategies to improve Engagement
- Every professional contact with the family is part of the engagement process; this includes that first letter and telephone call to the family and young person.
Is there previous information on the family, has an Early Help Assessment been completed, is there aLead Professional that can ai
9. Dealings with Hostility and Violence
- However sensitive and supportive you are as a worker some families will still respond with threats of violence. In these instances it is important that you follow internal Health and Safety procedures as well as continued support from your line manager. Professionals and the child's safety
2. Key Concepts
The Children Act 1989 provides the legal framework for defining the situations in which local authorities have a duty to make enquiries about what, if any, action they should take to safeguard or promote the welfare of a child.
Section 47 of the Act requires that
10. Hard to Engage Professionals Meetings (at time this will be a Strategy Meeting or Family Support Meeting instead)
- If the family is still not engaging when everything has been done to aid the process a child protection consultation should be considered with a child protection coordinator and a hard to engage professionals meeting should be convened.
No sole agency works in isolation and non engagement
7. Multi Agency Child in Need Meetings 5. Child Protection Conference 4. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries 2. Threshold for Referral 7. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
1.2.1 Child Protection Conferences
1.2.2 Recording That a Child is Subject of a Child Protection Plan
1.2.3 Planning & Implementation
1.2.4 Unallocated Child Protection Cases
1.2.5 Looked After Children Subject to Child Protection Plans
- When a professional is aware a pregnant woman or her partner is involved in significant substance misuse, e.g.:
The woman’s use is characterised by use of multiple drugs / drugs and alcohol;
The family’s lifestyle is known or reported to be chaotic and / or unhygienic;
This chapter provides:
Definitions of Significant Harm, abuse and neglect;
Information to assist the general recognition of circumstances where a child may suffering or likely to suffer abuse or neglect;
Advice on the response to such recognition, including response to the child, pare
11. Administrative Arrangements
Children’s Social Care is responsible for administering the child protection conference service.
Each authority must have clear arrangements for the organisation of child protection conferences including:
Information leaflets for children and for parents translated into appr
What to do if a Child or Young Person is Affected by Parental Substance Misuse
- Professionals should:
Assess the level of risk of harm to the child or young person:
If the child is suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm refer to Children’s Social Care;
If the child is in imminent danger contact the police on 999;
If the child has unmet needs undertake an Ear
2. Legal Position
- Girls and boys under the age of 16 cannot lawfully (though may in practice) consent to sexual intercourse. Anyone engaging in sexual activity (as defined in The Sexual Offences Act 2003) with a child under the age of 16 is committing an offence. Children under 13 years of age are presumed
10. Hard to Engage Professionals Meetings (at time this will be a Strategy Meeting or Family Support Meeting instead) Notification of Child Death
- Click here to view Child-death information templates for Local Safeguarding Children's Boards.
This procedure is additional to the usual procedures for all children and applies when there is an allegation or suspicion that a child has abused or is at risk of abusing another child or adult, including both those:
Outside of the child's immediate household; and
Within her/his hous
2. Threshold for Referral
Severe harm may be caused to children by abusive and bullying behaviour of other children, which may be physical, sexual or emotional and such abuse must be taken as seriously as abuse perpetrated by an adult.
The same signs and symptoms of abuse that pertain to the
These procedures are additional to those that apply to all children.
The interests of the identified victim must always be the paramount consideration. However, whenever a child may have abused another, all agencies must be aware of their responsibilities to both individuals and mu
4. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries
The outcome of enquiries is as described in the Section 47 Enquiries Procedure. However, the position of the alleged victim and the alleged perpetrator must be considered separately.
If the information gathered in the course of enquiries suggests that the perpetrator is also a vict
5. Child Protection Conference
Consideration should be given to inviting a team representative to the conference of alleged abusers aged 10 or over, and informing YOT of the meeting in the case of younger children.
As well as carrying out all of its normal functions the child protection conference must consider
6. Criminal Proceedings
The decision as to how to proceed with the criminal aspects of a case will be made by the police and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). This decision will take into account any recommendations of the YOT and the views of other professionals.
Best practice suggests that criminal
7. Multi Agency Child in Need Meetings
Where there are insufficient grounds for holding a Child Protection Conference, or where one has been held but a Child Protection Plan was not implemented, a multi-agency approach will still be needed if the young abuser's needs are complex.
In such cases a multi-agency child in ne
See also Information guide: adolescent to parent violence and abuse (APVA) (Home Office)
This chapter was updated in October 2015 when a link to Home Office guidance on Adolescent to Parent Violence and Abuse was added (see above).
8. Professional and Family Support
- Before the CDOP meets, the Chair should consider what explanatory information is sent to the child's family.
The CDOP Chair should consider what feedback is given to those professionals involved with the child's family so that they, in turn, can convey this information in a sensiti
Working with Foreign Authorities: Child Protection Cases and Care Orders - Departmental Advice for Local Authorities, Social Workers, Service Managers and Children’s Services Lawyers (Department for Education, July 2014)
In April 2016, this chapter was revised
3. Categories of Abuse and Neglect 4. Recognising Abuse and Neglect
- The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has guidance on recognising child abuse and neglect.
6. Referral by Members of the Public
Please see Interagency Interface between serious incidents reporting in health services, serious case reviews and child death reviews.
MKSCB Child Sexual Exploitation Guidance for Professionals (2015) including Screening Tool
MKSCB CSE Strategy and Action Plan (2015)
This chapter was updated in October 2015, when links to the MKSCB CSE Strategy and Action Plan and Guidance for Professionals were added (see above
9. Learning From Child Deaths
- The CDOP will monitor and advise the LSCB on the resources and training required locally to ensure an effective inter-agency response to child deaths.
The CDOP will identify any public health issues and consider, with the Director(s) of Public Health, how best to address thes
7. Consent and Confidentiality
- Information in CDOP meetings will not be anonymised.
Parental consent is not required for this information to be passed to the LSCB SPOC. It should only be shared with those who need to know as governed by the Caldicott Principles, the Data Protection Act and Working Together to Sa
There is no minimum age in law below which a child / young person may not 'baby-sit' a younger child. Those who hold Parental Responsibility are responsible for ensuring the baby-sitter is capable and will provide adequate care and should take account of:
Age and maturity of child to be lo
12. Complaints about the Child Protection Conference
- See also Complaints, Non-Compliance and Conflict Resolution Procedure
Parents / carers or a child (considered by the Independent Chair to have sufficient understanding) may make a complaint in respect of one or more of the following aspects of the child protection conferen
11. Administrative Arrangements 10. Challenges by Professionals 9. Actions & Decisions of the Conference 8. Chairing of Conference 7. Information for Conference 6. Exclusion of Family Members From a Conference 4. Involving Parents / Carers & Family Members 6. Functions of the Child Death Overview Panel
- Children who die in hospital will normally be reviewed by the CDOP for the area in which they lived.
The CDOP must review the circumstances of children who are normally resident in the area but who die abroad.
The key functions of the CDOP are to:
Receive notification on all
3. Aim of Intervention
- The aims of intervention by agencies are to:
Identify any child who is being sexually exploited or who is at risk of sexual exploitation;
Identify and prosecute those adults involved in either coercing or abusing the child;
Protect the child from further abuse and offer support to overcome
1. Inter-Agency Collaboration 5. Notification of Child Deaths
- Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015) Chapter 5 requires that the LSCB should be informed of all deaths of children normally resident in their geographical area. To ensure this each CDOP must nominate a single point of contact (SPOC) to be informed of all child deaths in their LSC
4. Frequency of CDOP Meetings
- The CDOP should hold meetings on a regular basis to enable the circumstances of each child's case to be discussed in a timely manner. The frequency of the meetings should reflect the number of cases in the LSCB area.
3. Core Purpose
- The CDOP will undertake an overview of all child deaths within the locality. This process uses a standard set of data (see Department for Education website) based on information available from those who were involved in the care of the child, both before and immediately after the death, an
- When a child/ren dies within the area in which s/he normally resides, the LSCB must collect and analyse information about each death with a view to identifying:
Any case giving rise to the need for a review mentioned in Regulation 5(1)(e) of the Local Safeguarding Children Board Regulation
- This Procedure sets a minimum standard for a Child Death Overview Panel (CDOP) as outlined inWorking Together to Safeguard Children (2015) and will be under constant review by MKSCB policy and procedure sub committee.
There are two inter-related processes for reviewing child deaths. Either
3. Membership of Child Protection Conferences 2. Types of Child Protection Conferences 4. Indicators
Staff and carers should receive training on child sexual exploitation, and therefore be aware of the key indicators of child sexual exploitation. They include:
Physical symptoms (bruising suggestive of either physical or sexual assault);
Recurring or multipl
Children and families from black or minority ethnic groups (both white and black skinned) may have experienced harassment, racial and / or religious discrimination and institutional racism.
Families may suffer religious and/or racial harassment sufficient in frequency and seriousness to un
Organisational responses to allegations by an adult of abuse experienced as a child must be of as high a standard as a response to current abuse because:
There is a significant likelihood that a person who abused a child/ren in the past will have continued and may still be doing so;
As soon as it is apparent an adult is revealing childhood abuse, the member of staff must record what is said by the service user and the responses given by the staff member. A chronology should be undertaken and all records dated and the authorship made clear by a legible signature or
5. Monitoring and Treatment of Positive Children
- The progression of HIV disease is not the same in children as in adults, and the range of drugs used to treat children is not as extensive. Children and young people who are positive will require careful monitoring to ensure that the appropriate treatment options are considered at the righ
- HIV status should normally only be disclosed with the informed consent of the person concerned. Where the child is infected, their consent to the sharing of information about their status must be sought if they are of sufficient age and understanding. Otherwise, consent should be from the
- The most common route of HIV infection in a child is through vertical transmission - transmission of HIV infection from their mothers - but there may also be concern that children may have been exposed to infection where:
Children have received medical treatment in countries without access
3. Testing of Children
- The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test can provide accurate information about the HIV status of babies from the first few weeks of life. Given the advances in treatment, there are real advantages in determining the HIV status of children who may have been exposed to the risk of infection
4. Rejection of Medical Advice / Testing / Non-engagement
- During Pregnancy
Parents may refuse intervention to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Such refusal may be due to a number of reasons, for example cultural beliefs, concerns about bonding, or in order to maintain confidentiality about HIV status.
Under UK law, unborn children do not
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is never in itself a child protection issue. However, there will be a small number of families affected by HIV in which child protection issues arise, as they do in other families where there may be concerns about children. In some instances, concerns wil
Read in conjunction with:
Consent: A guide for children and young people. 2001. Department of Health;
‘Don’t Forget the Children’: guidance for the HIV testing of children with HIV-positive parents. 2009. BHIVA, CHIVA and GASHH.
Milton Keynes Hospital Foundation Trust (MKHFT) staff
Many families who seek help for their children, or for whom others express concern, are multiply disadvantaged and may face chronic poverty, social isolation. Additionally they may suffer from problems associated with living in disadvantaged areas, such as high crime, poor housing, ch
3. Where Abuse and/or Neglect is either Definite or Appears to be likely
Where abuse and/or neglect is either definite or appears to be likely the following should be noted:
The admission dataset should include the child's name, age, the full address and names of both caregivers (where there are two), the GP, Health Visitor and the name of the child's scho
The following procedures have been developed from the recommendations into the death of Victoria Climbié.
These procedures apply whenever there are child protection concerns about a child admitted to hospital.
If hospital staff become aware a baby about to be, or just born is the product of 'commissioning' and have grounds to doubt the commissioners identity / suitability to care for the baby, or the degree of voluntarism (payment beyond reasonable expenses is unlawful), they should contact Chil
2. Recognition of Communication Difficulties
When taking a referral, social workers must establish the communication needs of the child / parents and other significant family members. Relevant specialists may need to be consulted e.g. language therapist, teacher of hearing impaired children, paediatrician etc.
The use of acc
All agencies need to ensure a capacity to communicate fully with parents and children when there are concerns about abuse / neglect and to ensure family members and professionals fully understand the exchanges that take place.
3. Interviewing Children
The particular needs of a child who is thought to have communication problems should be considered at an early point in the planning of the enquiry (Strategy Discussionstage).
Professionals should be aware that interviewing is possible when a child communicates by means other than
This chapter was updated in March 2014. Reference to requiring CRB Checks was removed and replaced with the requirement to carry out a Disclosure and Barring Service Check.
A parent's homelessness or placement in temporary accommodation, often at a distance from previous support networks, can result in, or be associated with transient lifestyles.
In these circumstances there is a risk that the family may fall through the net and become disengaged from health,
4. Using Interpreters With Family Members
If the family's first language is not English and even if they appear reasonably fluent, the offer of an interpreter should be made, as it is essential that all issues are understood and fully explained.
Interpreters used for child protection work should have been subject to refere
March 2014, this chapter was updated to provide links to the most recent MAPPA guidance issued by the Ministry of Justice and Home Office guidance on Offences against Children.
A young carer is a young person under 18 who has a responsibility for caring on a regular basis for a relative (or very occasionally a friend) who has an illness or disability. This can be primary or secondary caring and leads to a variety of losses for the young carer.
LASSL(2005) 'Identification of Individuals who Present a Risk to Children' appended Home Office Circular 16/2005 which indicated that the use of the term 'Schedule 1 Offender' commonly used to describe those convicted of offences against children should be discontinued and replaced wit
2. Register of Sexual Offenders
Notification requirements of Part 2 Sexual Offences Act 2003 (known as the Sex Offenders Register) are an automatic requirement on offenders who receive a conviction or caution for certain sexual offences.
Notification requirements are intended to ensure police are informed of the
3. Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)
The following material reproduces the multi-agency protocol signed off in February 2005 by respective senior managers in Thames Valley Police, Probation and the Prison Service.
The protocol revised previous local arrangements following publication of national guidanc
4. Developing Intelligence About Organised or Persistent Offenders
Each Public Protection Unit has an intelligence capability responsible and may:
Collate and disseminate relevant intelligence to local, area and central police databases regarding persons likely to be committing offences against children;
Initiate proactive assessment and tasking plan
5. Release and Temporary Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences Against Children
- Guidance on Offences against Children can be found by clicking on the following link: GOV.UK.
Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences Against Children
When a prisoner convicted of offences against a child is to be released at the end of her/his sentence the director of Children's
6. Identified Offenders & Others Who May Pose a Risk to Children
Indicators of people who may pose a risk to children include:
Risk to Children Offenders;
Individuals known to have been cautioned / warned / reprimanded in relation to an offence against children;
Individuals against whom there is a previous finding in civil proceedings
7. Visits by Children to High Secure Hospitals & Prisons
High secure (formerly known as special) hospitals have a duty to implement child protection policies, liaise with their safeguarding partnership, provide safe venues for children's visits and provide nominated officers to oversee assessment of whether visits by specific children would
2. Recognition and Referral
- The majority of parents who suffer significant mental ill-health are able to care for and safeguard their child/ren and/or unborn child, but it is essential always to assess the implications for each child in the family.
In some cases, the parent's condition may seriously affect the safety
- For the purposes of safeguarding children the mental health or mental illness of the parent or carer should be considered in the context of the impact of the illness on the care provided to the child.
While mental illness can be compatible with good parenting, some parents with a severe me
See also guidance for adult mental health professionals on the National Reporting and Learning Service website.
3. Importance of Working in Partnership
- Meeting the needs of parents with mental health problems and their families raises practical, professional and organisational challenges for services. SCIE’s guide, Think child, think parent, think family (2009, revised 2011) (see SCIE website) addresses these challenges, and recommends
4. Responsibilities of Adult Mental Health Staff When Working With Adults Who Have Parental Responsibilities
- Any mental health worker who becomes concerned about the welfare of a child should make a referral to Children Social Care (see Referral and Assessment Procedure).
The needs of children should be explicitly considered within the risk assessment and Care Programme Approach (CPA) assessment
5. Responsibilities of Children's Social Care Staff
- A referral may be received regarding concerns of parental mental ill-health expressed by the referrer or arising during a Child and Family Single Assessment, but there is no information about involvement of Adult Mental Health Services. As part of the routine checks, the assessment team sh
Organised or complex abuse covers circumstances, which may involve a number of abusers and/or a number of children. The abusers concerned may be acting in concert to abuse a child or children.
One or more of the adults involved may be using an institutional framework or position of
2. General Principles
Cases of organised abuse are often complicated because of the number of children involved, the serious nature of the allegations of abuse, the need for therapeutic input and the complex and time consuming nature of any consequent legal proceedings.
Such cases usually require the fo
3. Initial Strategy Discussion/Meeting
Where there is a suspicion of a 'complex case', the Children's Social Care service and safeguarding managers and the police CAIU inspector must be informed immediately. They should have a management Strategy Discussion/Meeting within the working day the referral is received.
4. Professionals Who Need to be Informed
The head of Children's Social Care must inform the safeguarding partnership chair, director of Children's Social Care, head of the media / press office and senior managers of relevant agencies e.g. designated child protection professionals.
6. Joint Investigation Group
This group led by the CAIU senior investigating officer or the Children's Social Care lead manager, should consist of experienced personnel from CAIU and Children's Social Care - the latter may choose to use independent / agency / outside organisation social workers.
7. Crossing Geographical & Operational Boundaries
It may be recognised at the outset or during the investigation that there are suspected or potential victims in more than one area.
At the outset, the responsibility for managing the investigation lies with the Children's Social Care where the abuse is alleged to have occurred/ whe
5. Strategic Management Group (SMG)
To ensure a co-ordinated response, a SMG meeting chaired by either Children's Social Care or the police must be convened within 5 working days of the receipt of the referral.
The membership of the group should comprise senior staff able to commit resources and will normally includ
9. Use of Restrictive Physical Intervention
- The proper use of restrictive physical intervention requires judgement, skill, and knowledge of non-harmful methods of control.
A range of legislation and guidance exists (see section 4) regarding the criteria under which restrictive physical intervention can be used in different settings.
- To promote the safe and effective management of behaviour to safeguard and protect children and young people.
To promote the development of effective relationships and interpersonal skills and the focus on de-escalation to minimise the need to use restrictive physical intervention.
- This inter-agency procedure applies to all agencies working with children and young people in Milton Keynes, except Thames Valley Police due to the statutory legislation under which the Police Service is regulated, and its oversight by the Independent Police Complaints Commission.
- Restraint is defined as "direct physical contact to overpower an individual." (Hart 2008:3 Restrictive Physical Intervention in Secure Children's Homes. DCSF)
Secure Accommodations is any accommodation which has 'the purposed of restricting liberty' (Section 25, Children Act 1989). No chil
4. Legislation National Guidance Policy
- The main sources of law and other relevant requirements with respect to restrictive physical intervention are:
Health & Safety at Work Act 1974;
Children Act 1989;
Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations volume 4, Residential Care paragraphs 1.82 - 1.91 and 8.10 1991;
Guidance on Pe
- Restrictive physical intervention is only one technique in a range of possible responses to threatening or actual violent behaviour. It must therefore only be used when other methods, not involving the use of force, are unlikely to achieve the desired outcome. Management of behaviour shoul
6. Levels of Interaction to Manage Children's Behaviour
- There are 3 levels of interaction which can be used as an attempt to manage children's behaviour:-
Management by simple physical presence, involving no contact: e.g. standing in doorway to prevent exit, or being assertive in emphasising verbal instructions;
Guiding or touching a child to p
7. Preventative Strategies
- Management and staff should establish a positive culture aimed at creating and promoting a calm environment in order to minimise the risk of incidents that might require the use of restrictive physical intervention.
Effective relationships formed between young people and staff are central
- Agencies must assess the level and type of training required to be delivered to staff during their induction period. The agency will decide what level and type of training is appropriate following an assessment of risk and need. Such training may include:
10. Doctrine of Minimum Force
- If restrictive physical intervention is used without reasonable cause, it could under common law constitute unlawful restriction of liberty or under criminal law, assault.
Force is only lawful if the use complies with the legal doctrine of minimum force. This specifies that any force used
11. Permissible Restrictive Physical Intervention
- Whenever possible, staff must give a verbal warning, repeated if necessary, before undertaking restrictive physical intervention. This may bring the situation under control.
If a child needs restrictive physical intervention where possible the staff member should ensure there is another me
12. Following use of Restrictive Physical Intervention
- As soon as a child is in control of their behaviour or is safe they must be released from restrictive physical intervention. The situation may not have been resolved for the child and a further period of close supervision may be necessary.
As soon as is practicable staff must ask whether t
13. Recording and Reporting
- All agencies must develop their own agreed format and documentation for recording any incident, in accordance with the expectations outlined in 13.2. An incident must be clearly recorded in written format and reported by a member of staff involved in restrictive physical intervention withi
- Monitoring of all incidents involving restrictive physical intervention is essential in order to identify where lessons can be learnt and to prevent the build up of unsafe practice.
The Manager, person responsible, or nominated person, will monitor each incident, this will include meeting
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This chapter summarises Safeguarding Children and Young People Who May be Affected by Gang Activity published by the Department for Children, Schools and Families in 2010.
This non-statutory guidance helps frontline practitioners across the children’s workforce unde
6. Support and Interventions
- Support and interventions should be proportionate, rational and based on the child’s needs identified during assessment. The diagram on page 28 of the government guidance sets out the areas of intervention for the different tiers of need based on the risk factors identified. These will r
5. Referral and Assessment
- Anyone with concerns about a young person’s involvement in a gang can contact the NSPCC a 24-hour helpline (0800 800 500).
The helpline is funded by the Home Office is available to help parents, carers or any other adult worried about a child or young person at risk from gang-related act
3. Gang-Related Activity - What is the Risk?
- See also Knife, Gun and Gang Related Violence information on the Home Office website.
Local evidence-gathering and profiling of local gang problems will be needed to establish what the risks are in a particular area.
Practitioners should consider the risks to young people involved in gangs
4. Identification and Risk Factors
- There are particular risk factors and triggers that young people experience in their lives that can lead to them becoming involved in gangs. Many of these risk factors are similar to involvement in other harmful activities such as youth offending or violent extremism.
Risk factors for a pe
2. Definition of a Gang
- Being part of a friendship group is a normal element of growing up and it can be common for groups of children and young people to gather together in public places to socialise. Although some group gatherings can lead to increased antisocial behaviour and youth offending, these activities
- Addressing concerns arising from a young person’s involvement in a gang is a multi-agency issue. Partnership working and information sharing are therefore key to safeguarding children and young people at risk of gang-related harm.
Young people can be put at risk by gang activity both thr
- All reports of self harm, attempted self-harm or threats of self harm, including threats of suicide must be taken seriously by all professionals. In most cases of deliberate self harm the young person should be seen as a child in need and offered help via the school counselling service, th
To download the threshold document, click on this link: MK Levels of Need, April 2019
Contact The Multi Agencty Safeguarding Hub on 01908 253169 or 01908 253170 or visit the MASH page
1.1.1 MKSCB Levels of Need
1.1.2 Recognising Abuse and Neglect
1.1.3 Section 47 Enquiries
1.1.4 Referral and Assessment
1.1.5 Pre-birth Procedures
1.1.6 Allegations Against Staff, Carers
3. Responding to Incidents of Self Harm
- It is good practice, whenever a child/young person is known to have either made a suicide attempt or been involved in self-harming behaviour, to undertake a multi-disciplinary assessment of the strengths, needs and risks to the child. This assessment must include listening carefully to the
4. Further Information
- Royal College of Psychiatrists Managing Self harm in Young People (2014)
Guidance for Developing a Local Suicide Prevention Action Plan: Information for Public Health Staff in Local Authorities (2014)
Milton Keynes Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service
2. Managing and Providing Information About a Child
Each local authority should designate a manager, normally an experienced social worker, who has responsibility for:
Ensuring that records on children who have a Child Protection Plan are kept up to date;
Ensuring enquiries about children about whom there are concerns or who have child
Where there is suspected or actual evidence of anyone accessing or creating indecent images of children, this must be referred to the Police Child Abuse Investigation Unit (CAIU) and Children’s Social Care (CSC) in accordance with the Referral and Assessment Procedure.
Where there a
Abusive images may be found in the possession of those who use it for personal use, financial gain or distributed to children as part of the grooming process.
Use of the Internet
For young people, the Internet and associated technologies are an intrinsic part of everyday life, of
For the purposes of child protection, abusive images of children can be divided into:
Those which are unlawful; and
Material, which although lawful, would give cause for concern and indicate that the person possessing it may pose a risk to children.
Click here for guidance on ‘Young People who Post Self Taken Indecent Images’.
Approved by MKSCB BMG February 2012.
1. The Record
Children's Social Care IT systems should be capable of recording in the child's case record when the child is the subject of a Child Protection Plan. Each local authority's IT system should be capable of producing a list of all the children resident in the area (including those who hav
Further information and resources
- UK Council for Internet Safety, Sexting in schools and colleges: Responding to incidents and safeguarding young people (January 2018)
UK Council for Internet Safety Safeguarding children and protecting professionals in early years settings: online safety considerations (February 2019)
- Self-harm, self-mutilation, suicide threats and gestures by a child must always be taken seriously and may be indicative of a serious mental or emotional disturbance.
2. Managing and Providing Information About a Child
This chapter was updated in April 2015, when Section 4, Further Information was added containing links to Guidance for Developing a Local Suicide Prevention Action Plan: Information for Public Health Staff in Local Authorities and a report from the Royal College of Psychiatrists:
All young people, regardless of gender, or sexual orientation, who are believed to be engaged in, or planning to be engaged in, sexual activity must have their needs for health education, support and/or protection assessed by the agency involved.
In assessing the nature of any pa
6. Young People Between 13 and 16 Years
Sexual activity with a child under 16 years of age is also an offence. Where it is consensual it may be less serious than if the child were under 13 years, but may nevertheless have serious consequences for the welfare of the young person. Consideration should be given in every case
5. Young People Under the Age of 13 Years
Under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, children under the age of 13 years are considered of insufficient age to give consent to sexual activity.
Cases involving under-13s should always be discussed with a nominated child protection lead in the organisation. Under the Sexual Offences
In working with young people, it must always be made clear to them that absolute confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, and that there will be some circumstances where the needs of the young person can only be safeguarding by sharing information with others.
This discussion with the
- Department for Education, Sexual violence and sexual harassment between children in schools and colleges (December 2017)
The minimum age at which young people, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, can consent to have lawful sexual intercourse, is sixteen years of age.
With respect to a child under the age of 13, her/his actual consent to any sexual activity is irrelevant because the law presum
All young people have a right to confidential advice from professionals about sexual health/sexually transmitted infections, contraception and relationships.
The purpose of these procedures is to clarify the process/responsibilities of practitioners with regards to assessing
8. Sharing Information with Parents and Carers
Decisions to share information with parents and carers will be taken using professional judgement, consideration of whether the young person is Fraser Competent, and in consultation with these Child Protection Procedures. Decisions will be based on the child's age, maturity and abilit
7. Young People Age 16-17 Years
Sexual activity involving 16 or 17 year olds, though unlikely to involve an offence, may still involve harm or the risk of harm. Professionals should still bear in mind the considerations and processes outlined in this guidance in assessing the risk and should share information as app
3. Children Already in this Country
Professionals should be familiar with the advice about migrant children and refer to Children's Social Care where there are concerns about such children including suspicions of trafficking concerning a particular child/ren victim, adult/s perpetrators or suspicious activity at specific
5. Action After Initial Information Gathering
On completion of initial information gathering the social worker must discuss the referral with a team/group manager to agree and plan next steps:
No further action if no concerns are identified;
Commence a Child and Family Single Assessment to to decide whether appropriate arrangeme
2. Port of Entry
Milton Keynes does not have a port of entry.
Immigration officers undertake the identification of children at risk of harm. Children who do not meet the immigration criteria for entry and children, who, irrespective of their immigration status are believed to be at risk of harm if
6. Section 47 Enquiry
Whenever a practitioner or volunteer becomes concerned that a child is suffering or is likely to suffer Significant Harm, a referral must be made to Children's Social Care and the local police CAIU in accordance with procedures in Recognition & Response Procedure, Duty to Refer to
4. Referral and Initial Information Gathering
The social worker should obtain as much information as possible from the referrer, including the child's name, date of birth, address, name of carer/guardian, address if different, phone number, country of origin, home language and whether s/he speaks English, names of any siblings or
This procedure has been developed to address concerns about the disappearance, following arrival in this country, of vulnerable children from abroad, by:
Identifying and protecting those who may be suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm through trafficking and exploitation;
7. Children in Care
The social worker should seek a placement proportionate to the need to protect the child. This may include protection from possible abduction and in some cases require surveillance cameras in operation, monitoring of phone calls and intensive supervision. If required an escort must be
10. Resources / Further Information
- Safeguarding Children who may have been Trafficked; Practice Guidance, Home Office and Department for Education (2011)
On the Safe Side, Principles for the Safe Accommodation of child Victims of Trafficking, Ecpat Uk (2011)
Child Trafficking, Begging and Organised Crime, Ecpat Uk Briefing
RELEVANT CHAPTERS AND GUIDANCE
See also the Tackling Trafficking Toolkit developed by London Safeguarding Children Boardand the National Crime Agency for information about the National Referral Mechanism.
This chapter was updated in March 2014; Section 10, Resources / Further Inf
8. Issues for Professionals to Consider When Working With Trafficked & Exploited Children
Children who have been trafficked and exploited are likely to need some of the following services:
Appropriately trained interpreting;
Someone to spend time with them and build up a level of trust;
Counselling via child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS);
9. Missing Children at Risk of Being Trafficked
If a child, who is at risk of being trafficked, goes missing, residential staff / foster carers must immediately inform Children's Social Care the social worker, team/group manager or Emergency Social Work Team, who must contact the police control room and Immigration Service.
3. Formulation of Child Protection Plan 4. Lead Social Worker Role 12. Monthly Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel Meetings 10. Responding to FGM: Non-immediate Concern about a Child – Referral to Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel 8. Death of a Child Subject to a Child Protection Plan 9. Family Group Conferences 15. Feedback From Enquiries
Parents, and children of sufficient age and appropriate level of understanding, together with those agencies and professionals significantly involved in the Section 47 Enquiry, should be given written information on the outcome of the enquiry (in advance of any subsequent Child Protec
14. Recording of Section 47 Enquiries
All agencies must keep accurate and detailed records of information, actions and decisions relating to the Section 47 Enquiry, using any agency 'pro-formas' (legibly) signed and dated by the staff or inputted into their electronic record.
Both CAIU and Children's Social Care reco
13. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries
At the completion of the planned enquiry, the social worker and line manager should decide how to proceed, following Strategy Discussion/s with relevant agencies and professionals. The aim of the Strategy Discussion at this point is to share information, plan any further enquiries and
11. Physical and Mental Health Care and Treatment Pathway for those affected by FGM 13. Reducing the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation 12. Analysis & Assessment of Risk
The scope and focus of the Child and Family Single Assessment during the Section 47 Enquiry will be that of a Child and Family Single Assessment which specifically addresses the risks for the child/ren. It should address the assessment framework dimensions and specifically:
11. Referrals for Medical Assessment by Children's Social Care/Police Child Abuse Investigation Unit
The Strategy Discussion will determine, in consultation with the paediatrician, the need for and timing of a medical assessment for the child and for any other children in the household. If the child is in urgent need of medical attention see Immediate Protection.
10. Meeting the Child
All children within the household must be directly communicated with during an enquiry (unless the Strategy Discussion decides this is not appropriate). Those who are the focus of concern should be seen alone by the Lead Social Worker, subject to age and preferably with parental perm
1. Duty to Conduct Section 47 Enquiries
Obligations and Responsibilities of All Agencies
All agencies have a duty (professional, and in many cases statutory) to assist and provide information in support of Section 47 Enquiries.
Responsibility of Children's Social Care
Children's Social Care has the:
General duty to
2. Section 47 Enquiries
Section 47 Enquiries must be initiated, usually following a Child and Family Single Assessment, whenever the threshold criteria are met.
Section 47 enquiries may be justified at the point of referral, during the early consideration of a referral, the Child and Family Single Assessm
3. Threshold for Section 47 Enquiries
A child's status - e.g. 'in need', or suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm must be ascribed in a flexible manner, which recognises the possibility of change and a consequent need to re-ascribe that status.
Section 47 Enquiries start when:
There is reasonable cause to
4. Role of Duty / Allocated Social Worker
Enquiries must be undertaken by a suitably qualified social worker, either a duty officer or the allocated social worker on an open case.
The duty / social worker must:
Obtain clear, detailed information about the concerns, suspicion or allegation;
Obtain history and background in
5. Strategy Discussion
If there is reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer Significant Harm, Children's Social Care should convene a Strategy Discussion. This may take place following a referral or at any other time if concerns about Significant Harm emerge.
6. Single & Joint Agency Investigations
Police & Children's Social Care Liaison
The primary responsibility of CAIU staff is to undertake criminal investigations of suspected, alleged or actual crime. Children's Social Care has the statutory duty to make, or cause to be made, enquiries when circumstances defined in Sect
7. Immediate Protection
Where there is a risk to the life of a child or the possibility of serious immediate harm, the police officer or social worker must act quickly to secure the safety of the child.
Emergency action may be necessary as soon as a referral is received or at any point of involvement with
2. Core Group
The Core Group is responsible for the formulation and implementation of the detailed Child Protection Plan, previously outlined at the conference.
All members of the Core Group are jointly responsible for:
Collecting information to assist the Lead Social Worker
8. Agency Information Sharing
The social worker must consult with other agencies involved with the child and family in order to obtain a fuller picture of the child's circumstances and those of any others in the household, including risk factors and parenting strengths.
Generally permission is sought from pare
9. Involving Parents, Family Members and Children
The social worker has the prime responsibility to engage with family members in order to assess the overall capacity of the family to safeguard the child, as well as ascertain the facts of the situation causing concern. Children should always be seen and communicated with alone by the
The Integrated Children's System provides for the use of a 'child's plan' for all Children in Need who are not being Looked After or leaving care. Children's Social Care is responsible for ensuring these plans are developed and implemented.
A Child's Plan should cover how the followin
6. Further Assessment
The Lead Social Worker and team/ group manager must, in supervision, regularly consider the risks to the child and whether further Children and Families Assessments or specialist assessments should be undertaken.
Further assessments may be helpful in the following circumstances:
3. Formulation of Child Protection Plan
The aim of the child protection plan is to:
Ensure the child is safe from harm and prevent him or her from suffering further harm;
Promote the child's health and development; and
Support the family and wider family members to safeguard and promote the welfare of their child, provided
14. Further Advice
- FGM Helpline
In June 2013, a new helpline was launched, with the aim of protecting children in the UK from FGM. The helpline is open 24 hours a day and can be contacted, by telephone on 0800 028 3550 or by emailing email@example.com. The service, which is anonymous, offers support to an
3. Types of Female Genital Mutilation and Procedures
- Female Genital Mutilation and other terms (see glossary) has been classified by the WHO into four types:
Type 1: Clitoridectomy Excision of the prepuce with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.
Type 2: Excision Excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the l
4. Implications of Female Genital Mutilation for a Child's Health and Welfare
- The health implications for a child of the FGM procedure can be severe to fatal, depending on the type of FGM carried out.
As with all forms of child abuse or trauma, the impact of FGM on a child will depend upon such factors as:
The severity and nature of the violence;
The individual chil
5. Professional Response
- There are three circumstances relating to FGM which require identification, assessment and possible intervention.
Where a child is at risk of FGM;
Where a child has been abused through FGM;
Where a (prospective) mother has undergone FGM.
Professionals and volunteers in most agencies have l
7. Mandatory Reporting of FGM
- From the 31st October 2015, regulated professionals in health and social care professions and teachers in England and Wales have a duty to report ‘known’ cases of FGM in under 18s which they identify in the course of their professional work to the police.
‘Known’ cases are those
8. Identifying a Child who is at Risk of FGM or who may have been Subjected to FGM Using the FGM Screening Tool
- The Milton Keynes Safeguarding Children Board has approved a screening tool (see, FGM Screening Tool) for FGM to assist all professionals in identifying children at risk of being abused through FGM, or children who may have been subjected to FGM. The screening tool also includes indicators
9. Responding to FGM: Immediate Concern about a Child at Risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM - Referral to Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub
- See Flowchart: ‘Child/Young Person – Risk of FGM Identified/Subject of FGM’.
Where there has been an immediate concern about a child at risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM a referral to Children’s Social Care via the Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MK MASH). A c
10. Responding to FGM: Non-immediate Concern about a Child – Referral to Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel
- If a professional suspects that a child may be at risk of FGM, the FGM Screening Tool should be used to identify the relevant risk factors and record the evidence behind the concerns.
Having completed the screening tool, if the risks do not appear to be immediate, or if the professional i
11. Physical and Mental Health Care and Treatment Pathway for those affected by FGM
- Any professional in contact with members of the public may meet women or young people with FGM who are seeking advice or help. In this circumstance, the professional or volunteer should assist the woman/young person to make contact with a healthcare professional. This may not be straightfo
12. Monthly Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel Meetings
- The monthly multi-agency FGM Consultation Panel meetings provide the opportunity for professionals to discuss and assess the risk factors in the case (using the MKSCB FGM Screening Tool) and come to a consensus about the appropriate course of action and whether there are safeguarding conce
13. Reducing the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation
- Milton Keynes Safeguarding Children Board is committed to promoting awareness in the local area, particularly amongst local communities which practice FGM, that female genital mutilation is abusive to children and not legal in the UK.
See the Milton Keynes Safeguarding Children Board (MKSC
14. Further Advice
- Other useful contacts are:
Foundation for Women's Health, Research & Development,6th Floor50 Eastbourne Terrace,LondonW2 6LXTel: 0207 725 2606Website: FORWARD
The African Well Woman Clinic at CentralUniversity College Hospital, London.
1. Legal Status
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines female genital mutilation (FGM) as: "all procedures (not operations) which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons" (WHO, 1996)
4. Role of Duty / Allocated Social Worker 3. Threshold for Section 47 Enquiries 1. Duty to Conduct Section 47 Enquiries
This chapter was reviewed and updated in October 2014. References to Initial and Core Assessment were removed and replaced with Children and Families Single Assessment.
1.3.1 Safeguarding Children and Young People from Sexual Exploitation
1.3.2 Child Death Overview Panel Procedure
1.3.3Female Genital Mutilation
1.3.4 Missing Child Policy
1.3.5 Safeguarding Children and Young people against Radicalisation and Violent Extremism
These procedures should be read in conjunction with the following:
Resources for practitioners working with women and children where there are concerns around FGM are available on the MKSCB website
Flowchart for Responding to Women who has undergone FGM
2. Cultural Underpinnings
- Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a complex issue. Despite the harm it causes, many women from FGM practising communities consider FGM normal to protect their cultural identity.
Although FGM is practised by secular communities, it is most often claimed to be carried out in accordance with
6. Single & Joint Agency Investigations 4. Lead Social Worker Role
At every Initial Child Protection Conference or pre-birth conference, where a decision is made that a child should be the subject of a Child Protection Plan, the chair will name a qualified social worker, identified by the social work team/group manager, to fulfil the role of Lead Soci
11. Referrals for Medical Assessment by Children's Social Care/Police Child Abuse Investigation Unit 5. Children's Social Care Team/Group Manager Role
The team/group manager has a vital role in managing the progress of the case and supporting the Lead Social Worker.
The Manager should:
Read and countersign all significant recordings, assessments and decisions on the child's file / electronic record, including the chronology;
8. Identifying a Child who is at Risk of FGM or who may have been Subjected to FGM Using the FGM Screening Tool 7. Intervention
Intervention must be provided to give the child and family the best opportunities of achieving the required changes, identifying and developing the strengths within the family.
If a child cannot be cared for safely at home, s/he will need to be placed elsewhere whilst work is under
8. Death of a Child Subject to a Child Protection Plan
When a child who is subject to a Child Protection Plan dies, from whatever cause, the Lead Social Worker or her/his manager must immediately inform the child protection co-ordinator who will notify the chair of the safeguarding partnership.
See Notification of Serious Child Care In
9. Family Group Conferences
A Family Group Conference (FGC) is a meeting in which family members themselves, including children and young people, design their own plan to overcome identified problems and to respond to the concerns of professionals.
The FGC is convened by an independent co-ordinator, not direc
15. Feedback From Enquiries 14. Recording of Section 47 Enquiries 13. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries 12. Analysis & Assessment of Risk 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries
Hospital admissions (including rehabilitation / mother and baby units) should not be regarded as a 'move of home'.
The responsible authority remains that within which the patient's home is located exceptwith regard to arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries (see Section 8, Arrangemen
9. Involving Parents, Family Members and Children 8. Agency Information Sharing 1. Introduction
Families who move across local authority boundaries can present difficulties in terms of safe, reliable and consistent delivery of services.
The universal services offered by Health and Children's Services (Education) are a function of the area in which a child is living.
2. Indicators of Risk
When families move frequently, it can be more difficult for agencies to monitor a child's welfare and identify any risks.
When families move rapidly it is often hard for any one agency to gain a clear understanding of risks. A child may be at risk of abuse and neglect but no agency
3. Best Practice for Information Transmission
Particular care must be exercised by all agencies in contact with those moving across boundaries to collect accurate information on any child in need and share this with other agencies e.g.:
Ensuring all forenames and surnames used by the family are provided, and clarification is obta
4. Child in Need 'Moves Between Authorities'
This procedure clarifies the:
Responsibilities of the originating and receiving authorities when a child, who is an open child in need case, moves between their geographical areas;
Process the two authorities should follow in making and responding to requests for case transfer.
5. Child Subject of a Child Protection Plan
When families plan to move they should be made aware that information will be shared with Children's Social Care in the receiving authority.
Where there are significant concerns about a child, the transfer to another authority should not deter the originating authority from initiat
6. Child Looked After by Originating Authority
Attribution of Children's Social Care Responsibility
A Looked After Child remains the responsibility of the originating authority until:
S/he is discharged from accommodation; or
Agreement is reached, and confirmed in writing by its team/group manager, that the receiving authority w
7. Child Subject to Statutory Order in Originating Authority
Attribution of Children's Social Care responsibility
Children subject to a full Care Order or an Interim Care Order remain the responsibility of the originating authority until the order is discharged or expires.
Where a Care Order is in force, the receiving authority may, (and t
8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries
A local authority has a lawful responsibility to conduct a Section 47 Enquiry regarding suspected or actual Significant Harm to a child who lives, or is found in its area.
The term 'home authority' refers to the authority holding case responsibility, or if the child is not known to
9. Responding to FGM: Immediate Concern about a Child at Risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM - Referral to Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub 5. Children's Social Care Team/Group Manager Role 7. Mandatory Reporting of FGM 6. NHS Actions
- Since April 2014 NHS hospitals have been required to record:
If a patient has had Female Genital Mutilation;
If there is a family history of Female Genital Mutilation;
If a Female Genital Mutilation-related procedure has been carried out on a patient.
Since September 2014 all acute hospit
5. Child Subject of a Child Protection Plan 6. Child Looked After by Originating Authority 7. Child Subject to Statutory Order in Originating Authority 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries 3. Best Practice for Information Transmission
An adult begging for money may be accompanied by a child (who may or may not be her/his own) whose role is to invoke public sympathy. A child may also beg alone or appear to be so doing.
It is not the activity itself, but rather the consequent risks that determine if a child protection res
4. Child in Need 'Moves Between Authorities' 4. Implications of Female Genital Mutilation for a Child's Health and Welfare 3. Types of Female Genital Mutilation and Procedures 2. Cultural Underpinnings 1. Definition - What do we mean by Children Missing from Education?
- “Children missing education are defined as children of compulsory school age who are not on a school roll, and who are not receiving a suitable education elsewhere: for example, at home, privately, or in alternative provision. They fall into two broad categories.
Those whose whereabouts
6. Further Information
- This guidance should be read in the context of the statutory duties upon local authorities and parents as set out in the following:
The Education Act 1996;
The Education Act 2002;
The Children Act 1989;
The Children Act 2004;
Statutory guidance for local authorities: Children missing educa
2. Safeguards Pending Allocation
All professionals relevant to the 'outline' or 'agreed' Child Protection Plan as well as family members, must be informed in writing by a team/group manager if there is no allocated social worker and advised of routine and emergency professional contact arrangements, pending allocation
1. Definition - What do we mean by Children Missing from Education? 4. Protection and Action to be Taken 2. Risks - Who is at Greatest Risk and Why? 4. Protection and Action to be Taken
- The Local Authority has a clear process for when a child is missing from education. The first stage is the responsibility of the school, the second the Local Authority.
The school should undertake reasonable actions to identify the whereabouts of the child. This includes telephonin
This policy should be read in conjunction with the following:
Joint protocol concerning children and young people who run away or go missing from home or care-to include reports of absences from April 29th 2014 (Children’s Services Authorities and Thames Valley Police);
- Anyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding children as described in statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018. Local Authorities have a duty to take all reasonable steps to identify and track children missing from
Anyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding children as described in statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018. Local Authorities have a duty to take all reasonable steps to identify and track children missi
6. Children's Social Care must then Inform
- The designated safeguarding manager (01908 254307) if the child is subject to a Child Protection Plan;
The Independent Reviewing Officer if the child Looked After;
Any individuals known to hold Parental Responsibility for the child (not if Honour Based Violence is known or suspected);
2. Risks - Who is at Greatest Risk and Why?
- Children fall out of the education system because they:
Fail to start appropriate provision and therefore never enter the system;
Cease to attend due to exclusion (e.g. unofficial exclusions) or withdrawal;
Fail to make the transition between schools within or across the Local Authority ar
11. Children Missing Education
- As a result of daily registration schools are particularly well placed to notice when a child has gone missing. If the missing child is subject to a Child Protection Plan, the head teacher must inform the allocated social worker immediately. If they are unavailable then they must contact
10. Child Indicated by Other Local Authorities to be Missing
- Each designated safeguarding manager must ensure that duty systems incorporate a method for keeping and referring to the notifications of children and/or families who are missing.
If, after two years there is no communication from the authority where the child and/or family went missing, t
9. Decision-making for All Cases
- If the child is Looked After, the Independent Reviewing Officer would need to decide if an early Looked After Review is required. If the child is subject of a Child Protection Plan, the designated safeguarding manager must decide and record whether to bring forward the next review confere
8. When a Child is Found
- Within 24 hours of the child’s return, the police will inform all relevant agencies of the child’s return and undertake a “safe and well” check. This will ensure as far as possible that it is safe to return to the home or care institution or placement that they have been absent fr
7. Strategy Meeting
- If the child has not been traced within 5 working days a Strategy Meeting should be convened.
Members of the meeting will need to consider whether to circulate details of the missing child to other local authorities and other agencies in the area.
Consideration should be given to national
5. Professionals should Inform
- The Thames Valley Police Enquiry Centre on 101;
The Social Worker for the child (or duty officer out of hours) if a child is actively open to social care, and specifically if:
A child subject of a child protection referral or a Section 47 Enquiry;
A child with a Child Protection Plan goe
1. Referral & Referral Criteria 4. Circumstances for Implementation of Procedure
- This procedure applies if any child goes missing or cannot be traced and they are:
Looked After by the local authority (including placed with Foster Carers);
Missing from home or have run away and there is cause for concern;
Missing from a private fostering arrangement;
Missing from a resi
- There is a distinction between young people who runaway and those who are forced to leave by their parents or carers.
Children and young people who are forced to leave will often not be reported missing.
If a child is taken overseas it may be appropriate to contact the Consular Directorate
- Interim Guidance on the Management, Recording and Investigation of Missing Persons (2013)used by the Police uses the following definitions:
Missing: Anyone whose whereabouts cannot be established and where the circumstances are out of character or the context suggests the person may be sub
3. Child and Family Single Assessment 2. Did You Know?
- In Milton Keynes around 400 children and young people go missing each year – of these some go missing repeatedly. There are around 650 incidents of missing children and young people per year in Milton Keynes.
Females are more likely to run away than males.
The peak age range for running
1. Priority Status
All child protection cases must be allocated to a named social worker and this should be awarded the highest priority in all local authorities.
Directors of Children's Services are professionally accountable for ensuring that there are sufficient human resources to provide the requ
2. Safeguards Pending Allocation 11. Children Missing Education 7. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
1.4.1 Abuse by Children
1.4.2 Abusive Images of Children and Information Communication Technology (ICT)
1.4.3 Children and Families Moving Across Boundaries
1.4.4 Children Missing from Education
1.4.5 Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority
1.4.6 Domestic Abuse
1.4.7 Enquiries In
6. Children's Social Care must then Inform 5. Professionals should Inform 4. Circumstances for Implementation of Procedure 1. Referral & Referral Criteria
A member of the public or a professional may make referrals to the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH). On the basis of a screening of the referral (see Section 2, Screening) a decision will be made as to whether further intervention should be initiated and the level of response.
All contacts / referrals to the MASH should initially be regarded as children in potential need, and evaluated on the day of receipt (and no later than within 1 working day), and a decision made regarding the next course of action.
When taking a referral, staff must establish as m
9. Decision-making for All Cases 10. Child Indicated by Other Local Authorities to be Missing 3. Child and Family Single Assessment
- 3.1 Assessments under the Children Act 1989
Under the Children Act 1989, local authorities undertake assessments of the needs of individual children to determine what services to provide and action to take:
A Child in Need is defined under the Children Act 1989 as a child who is unlikely t
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This chapter contains information for professionals who become aware of children who are not on a school roll or being educated otherwise or have been out of any educational provision for a substantial period of time. It reflects the 2015 Statutory Guidance for local
A definition of bullying, which is provided by the Anti-Bullying Alliance, is:
"The intentional hurting of one person by another, where the relationship involves an imbalance of power. It is usually repetitive or persistent, although some one-off attacks can have a continuing harmful effec
- Radicalisation is defined as the process by which people come to support terrorism and extremism and, in some cases, to then participate in terrorist groups.
“Extremism is vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty a
- Children and young people can be drawn into violence or they can be exposed to the messages of extremist groups by many means. These can include through the influence of family members or friends and/or direct contact with extremist groups and organisations or, increasingly, through the in
- With regard to issues that may make an individual vulnerable to radicalisation, these can include:
Identity Crisis - Distance from cultural / religious heritage and uncomfortable with their place in the society around them;
Personal Crisis - Family tensions; sense of isolation; adolesc
- Protecting children and young people from radicalisation and extremism requires careful assessment and working collaboratively across agencies as initially concerns may be inconclusive and protecting child or young person against a potential risk can be dependent on a wider range of factor
6. Further Information
- Prevent Strategy
Prevent Duty Guidance: for England and Wales
Channel Duty Guidance: Protection vulnerable people from being draw into terrorism
ADCS resources Radicalisation and Extremism
Educate against Hate
Local Channel Prevention Officer: firstname.lastname@example.org
9. Advancing Money from the Award to the Child 10. When a Young Person is 18
For additional guidance please see Safeguarding Disabled Children: Practice Guidance, which was published by the DCSF in July 2009.
The above guidance refers to UK evidence which suggests that disabled children are at increased risk of abuse and that the presence of multiple disabilities a
Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018 specifies that safeguarding children partnerships, local authorities and their partners should be commissioning and providing services for children who are likely to suffer, or may have suffered significant harm, due to radicalisation and extremi
2. Discontinuation of the Child Protection Plan 7. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
1.5.2 Belief in 'Possession' or 'Witchcraft'
1.5.5 Disabled Children
1.5.6 Living Away from Home
1.5.7 Parental Control Issues
1.5.8 Parental Involvement in Sex Work
1.5.9 Parental Learning Disability
1.5.10 Parental Substance Misuse
- The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme is a government-funded scheme to compensate victims of violent crime, administered by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA). Where a Looked After child appears to qualify (see Section 2, Eligibility), legal advice must always be sou
- A child/young person may be eligible if they:
Were a direct victim of a crime of violence;
Were not to blame for the incident;
Sustained an injury while taking an exceptional and justified risk, while trying to remedy or prevent a crime;
Sustained a mental injury as a result of witnessing
- In general, applications must be made within 2 years of the event giving rise to the claim.
Different rules apply, however, where the applicant was under 18 years of age on the date of the incident.
The application should always be made as soon as possible. However, the CICA recognise that
4. Making an Application
- Applications can be made:
Online, at Gov.uk;and
By telephone to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority. Customer Service Centre advisors can assist in making a claim over the telephone.
The following supporting evidence must be supplied:
Proof of satisfaction of
5. Accepting a Payment
- Legal advice should be sought without delay as to whether or not the offer should be accepted.
The acceptance form must be completed and returned within 56 days of it being sent. If it is not returned within 56 days, and no written request has been made for a review or an extension of tim
6. Reviewing Decisions
- If legal advice is received that the decision should be reviewed, written application for a review must be submitted within 56 days of the date of the original decision. A review form will be sent with the decision. Any additional evidence in support of the claim must be submitted.
7. Appealing Decisions
- A review decision can be challenged by appealing, within 90 days of the date of the review decision, to the First-tier Tribunal (Criminal Injuries Compensation). An appeal form will be sent with the review decision. The form and supporting evidence should be sent to:
First-tier Tribunal (
8. The Award
- Payment of compensation is usually by a single lump sum, but if the medical situation is unclear, one or more interim payments may be made.
No compensation will be paid until the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority receives an acceptance of the award in writing. Every effort must ther
A Guide to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 2012.
This chapter was added to the Procedures Manual in October 2014; it contains guidance on the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme administered by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority.
4. Protection and Action to be Taken
- Any practitioner identifying concerns about the child or young person should report them to the designated safeguarding lead in their organisation, who will discuss these concerns with the police. A referral to the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub should be made. Consideration of referrals to
1. Reviews, Care Planning & Conferences 4. Protection and Action to be Taken 10. When a Young Person is 18
- When the young person reaches the age of 18 years, responsibility for handling the money awarded by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority will be handed over to him/her unless he/she is felt to be incapable of dealing with it.
If the CICA receive evidence which shows it would not be
Where agencies or individuals anticipate that prospective parents may need support services to care for their baby or that the baby is likely to suffer Significant Harm, a referral to Children's Social Care must be made at the earliest opportunity.
The Recognising Vulnerability of
1. Reviews, Care Planning & Conferences
- A Looked After Child who remains the subject of a Child Protection Plan will have both Children in Care Reviews and Child Protection Review Conferences. The Child in Care review should be arranged so as to follow the child protection conference.
Child in Care Reviews and Child Protection C
2. Discontinuation of the Child Protection Plan
- When a child in care is no longer living in the situation which gave rise to the decision to make her/him subject of a Child Protection Plan and there is no current plan for her/him to be returned, her/his name may be removed (by means of a Child Protection Review Conference decision) from
9. Advancing Money from the Award to the Child
- The CICA may allow advances if these are needed for the child’s sole benefit, education or welfare (not for general spending money).
They may consider making a full payment if the child is 16 or 17 years of age and living independently.
The CICA will need evidence (normally a receipt)
4. Where Family Plan to Move/have Moved
Where there are significant concerns and the whereabouts of the mother are not known, Children's Social Care must inform other agencies and local authorities in accordance with the Missing Child, Adult or Family Procedure.
Where there are significant concerns and the case is being
3. Pre-Birth Assessment
The overall aim of the assessment is to identify and understand:
Parental and family history, life style and support networks and their likely impact on the child's welfare;
Causes of concerns and their likely impact on the baby's welfare;
Strengths in the family envir
2. Multi-Agency Meeting or Strategy Discussion
Children's Social Care should convene a multi-agency meeting within 10 days of the referral to consider concerns for an unborn baby and to initiate a pre-birth core assessment and any other specialist assessments.
An up to date chronology and genogram must be provided for this meet
2. Multi-Agency Meeting or Strategy Discussion 4. Where Family Plan to Move/have Moved Children in Care
- Social workers should ensure that a Child in Care has opportunities to see her/him alone regularly and at key points.
The Independent Reviewing Officer should also ensure s/he has the opportunity of seeing the child and speaking to them on their own (if age and developmentally appropriate)
School staff should read the following chapter in conjunction with Milton Keynes Council's Model Child Protection Policy for Schools & Settings.
Safer Recruitment Guidance
Keeping Children Safe in Education (2019)
See also - Managing Allegations and Concerns about Ad
Children in Custody
- Young Offenders Institutions which accommodate Juveniles (16-18) must have policies and procedures in place which set out their duties to safeguard and promote the welfare of the children and young people in their care.
Specific institutions in an area must ensure that there are links in p
- A private fostering arrangement is one made without the involvement of Children's Social Care for the care of a child under the age of 16 (under 18, if disabled) by someone other than a parent or close relative for 28 days or more. Close relative is defined as "a grandparent, brother, sist
Foreign Exchange Visits
- Children on foreign exchange visits typically stay with a family selected by the school in the host country. Where this is for a period of less than 28 days they are not 'privately fostered'.
In these circumstances the only agency involved is education, with the school making arrangements
Children in Hospital
- The NHS Framework for Safeguarding Vulnerable People in the Reformed NHS was published in 2013.
Hospitals should be child friendly, safe and healthy places for children, with care in an appropriate location and environment. Children should not be cared for in an adult ward.
S.85 of the Chi
2. The Child
- Where there is domestic abuse, the implications for the children and young people in the household must be considered because research indicates a strong link between domestic abuse and all types of child abuse and neglect. Prolonged or regular exposure to domestic abuse can have a serious
3. The Adult
- Possible indicators of domestic abuse:
Evidence of single or repeated injuries with unlikely explanations;
Frequent use of prescribed tranquillisers or pain medication;
Injuries to the breast, chest and abdomen especially during pregnancy;
Evidence of sexual or frequent gynaecological prob
4. Agency Assessments and Information Sharing
- Any agency assessment should consider the possibility of domestic abuse and ensure organisational responses safeguard both the child and non-abusing parent.
Adequately assess the heightened risks for babies that arise from domestic abuse in the home.
Consideration must also be given to you
5. Children’s Social Care
- Practitioners must consider a referral to Children’s Social Care and consult with them where the concerns about a child or unborn baby are at level 3 or 4 of the ‘Windscreen’.
The decision about where a child’s needs fit within the windscreen will depend on:
The age and vulnerabi
6. The Police
- Police are often the first point of contact with victims and they (or any other agency that becomes aware of domestic abuse) should safeguard the victim and:
Ascertain whether there are any children living in the household or if the victim is pregnant;
Make a preliminary determination of t
7. Child and Family Single Assessment / Section 47 Enquiries
- Normally one serious or several lesser incidents of domestic abuse where there is a child in the household indicate that children’s social care should carry out a Child and Family Single Assessment of the child and family, including consulting existing records. Babies under 12 months old
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
Domestic abuse is a broad description of situations that develop within the home / family environment where power is exercised to the detriment of one party.
Where there is domestic abuse, the wellbeing of the children in the household must be promoted and all assessm
9. Domestic Violence Protection Orders and the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (‘Clare’s Law’)
- 9.1 Domestic Violence Protection Orders
Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs) were implemented across England and Wales from 8 March 2014.
They provide protection to victims by enabling the police and magistrates to put in place protection in the immediate aftermath of a domestic abu
10. Training and References
- Specialist domestic abuse training is provided by the MKSCB for all child protection leads, designated staff and other identified personnel. Specialist domestic abuse training should be accessed by all identified child protection leads. This includes Designated Teachers, nominated key staf
- Revelations of widespread abuse and neglect of children living away from home have done much to raise awareness of the particular vulnerability of children in these circumstances.
These circumstances include boarding schools, children's homes, foster carers, private fostering, hospitals, p
8. Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Committee (MARAC)
- The MARAC is a multi-agency meeting that provides safety planning for high-risk victims and their families, through formulation of a Risk Management Plan, to ensure a joined up approach to intervention to keep them safe. The Committee sits once a month and its purpose is to discuss High Ri
4. Agency Assessments and Information Sharing 1. Introduction
- All agencies must ensure their staff, carers and volunteers are fully aware of effects of domestic abuse on children (including unborn babies). Any individual organisations' policies and procedures must provide for the need to share information with others where domestic abuse comes to the
6. Allegations Against Carers: Foster, Short-Break Lodgings and Approved Adopters
For the purposes of this procedure, the term 'carer' refers to formally approved foster carers, short break carers and supported lodgings carers who may provide placement/s directly for the local authority or for an independent organisation. This procedure also covers appr
5. Children’s Social Care 2. Threshold Considerations 3. Roles and Responsibilities 5. Allegations Against Staff/ Volunteers in Work 6. Allegations Against Carers: Foster, Short-Break Lodgings and Approved Adopters 7. Allegations Against Registered Childminders 8. Procedures in Specific Organisations 7. Allegations Against Registered Childminders
- Whenever an allegation is made against a registered childminder, the following procedures must be followed.
The Local Authority Designated Officer must be informed of the allegation and invited to the strategy discussion.
The social worker must inform the OFSTED early years inspectors of a
8. Procedures in Specific Organisations
- It is recognised that many organisations will have their own procedures in place, some of which may need to take into account particular regulations and guidance (e.g. schools and registered child care providers). Where organisations do have specific procedures, they should be compatible w
5. Allegations Against Staff/ Volunteers in Work
For the purpose of these procedures a 'worker' is a person whose work brings them into contact with children. This includes:
Individuals working in a voluntary capacity;
Contract workers (consultants or the self-employed);
Those working on or off site e.g. un
7. Child and Family Single Assessment / Section 47 Enquiries 1. Scope
- These procedures for managing allegations against people who work with children are overarching inter-agency procedures and should be used in conjunction with each individual agency's own policies and guidance.
This procedure applies whenever it is alleged that a person who works with chil
9. Domestic Violence Protection Orders and the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (‘Clare’s Law’) 8. Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Committee (MARAC) 10. Training and References 2. Threshold Considerations
- Residential social workers, teachers, foster carers, health workers in residential child care establishments, hospital staff, staff within a secure estate and early years professionals are all prohibited by law from applying more than specified types and levels of restraint to those childr
3. Roles and Responsibilities
- Each safeguarding partnership member organisation should identify:
A Named Senior Officer with overall responsibility for:
Ensuring the organisation operates procedures in accordance with safeguarding partnership child protection procedures;
Resolving any inter-agency issues;
4. General Procedures
Any allegation of abuse must be dealt with fairly, quickly and consistently, in a way that provides effective protection for the child and supports the person who is the subject of the allegation.
If, following the conclusion of the LADO’s investigation, further enquiries
1. Legal Position
Where there is concern that a child who is a member of a diplomat's family is at risk of abuse caution must be exercised in taking protective measures. Diplomats and members of their household have immunity from civil, criminal and administrative jurisdiction. They cannot be detained,
When children are brought to the attention of police or community because of behaviour problems, it may indicate vulnerability, poor supervision or neglect. It is important to consider if these are children in need and if multi-agency support should be provided.
A range of powers should be
2. Action by Children's Social Care and Police 2. Action by Children's Social Care and Police
It is important in all these case to establish whether diplomatic immunity may be claimed and to what extent. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office is prepared to give advice on this point and the team/group manager should contact the 'immunities section of the protocol department' on 02
Appendix 1: Preparing a FII Chronology 16. Supervision and Support
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This policy applies to all staff working in Milton Keynes agencies whose work brings them into contact with children and families, and should be used as a means of bringing about better outcomes for children and young people. It outlines the procedures to follow when
Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
Involvement of family members in sex work does not necessarily mean children will suffer Significant Harm. Risks to the children in these circumstances come from the following potential sources:
Exposure of the child to unsuitable adults and sexual activity / materials, especially if the p
14. Roles and Responsibilities 3. Indicators Which Should Alert Professionals to Possible FII 13. Police Investigation
- Any evidence gathered by the police should be available to other relevant professionals to inform discussions and decisions about the child’s welfare and contribute to the section 47 enquiry and Child and Family Single Assessment unless this is likely to prejudice criminal proceedings.
- This document is based on 'Safeguarding Children in Whom Illness is Fabricated or Induced' DoH 2008.
The objective of this document is to provide clarity to professionals on how to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in who fabricated or induced illnes
2. Recognition of FII
- Cases of FII may present in an acute situation in hospital or more commonly there may be a chronic evolution with frequent presentations of exaggeration or fabrication in a range of settings.
Health professionals such as doctors (particularly General Practitioners or Paediatricians), healt
3. Indicators Which Should Alert Professionals to Possible FII
- A carer reporting symptoms and observed signs that are not explained by any known medical condition;
Physical examination and results of medical investigations that do not explain symptoms or signs reported by the carer;
There is an inexplicably poor response to prescribed medication or ot
4. How is the Child Harmed?
- In fabricated illness the perpetrator does not directly harm the child. The carer actively promotes the sick role by exaggeration or fabrication (lying) of symptoms. The harm caused to the child can be significant and may include:
Frequent and invasive medical investigations;
- There is no such thing as a typical perpetrator. Various studies have highlighted the following characteristics:
Is often the mother;
Often has a current/ previous psychiatric history of anxiety, depression, self harm, eating disorder or past history of FII;
May alternate between presentin
6. Barriers to the Identification of FII
- The following approaches and attitudes can be a barrier to the identification of FII:
Failure to recognise the spectrum of cases that fall within the remit of FII;
Always thinking the best of parents;
Failure to corroborate the history offered by the parent/ carer;
7. Managing an Individual Case
- Acting on emerging concerns
Concerns could arise as a result from your own professional judgement, talking to colleagues or professionals from other agencies. As soon as concerns about FII arise, concerns should be documented in an accurate and factual manner differentiating between opinio
8. Medical Evaluation
- When the child is acutely ill and significant harm has occurred or there are concerns that the child is at risk of such harm and safety is an issue the child should be admitted for close observation until medical evaluation is complete.
Where the child’s health and safety is more secure
9. Referral to Children's Social Care
- When a possible explanation for the signs and symptoms is that they may have been fabricated or induced by a carer and as a consequence the child’s health or development is or is likely to be impaired, a referral should be made to Children’s Social Care.
A referral may follow:
10. Strategy Meeting
- At a minimum the meeting requires the involvement of:
Children’s Social Care;
Child Abuse Investigation Unit (CAIU);
Responsible paediatric consultant.
The following professionals should be invited if appropriate:
Senior ward nurse if child is an in-patient;
Named Nurse Child Protection;
12. Initial Child Protection Conference 12. Initial Child Protection Conference
- If it is deemed necessary that a child protection conference is required the timing of the conference will depend on the urgency of the case and time needed to obtain relevant information.
It is essential that the responsible paediatric consultant and the GP attend this conference and thou
11. Section 47 Enquiries (as part of Child and Family Single Assessment)
- Children’s Social Care will undertake the Child and Family Single Assessment, which will include the gathering of information about the history of the child and each family member. Emphasis should be given to both physical and mental health of family members, education and employment as
14. Roles and Responsibilities
- A clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of others is essential for effective collaboration. Joint working is essential.
Health professionals may feel a conflict of loyalty, especially when their primary patient is not the child. However the primary concern should a
Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
Warning Signs of Fabricated or Induced Illness
Reported symptoms and signs found on examination are not explained
Reported symptoms and signs found on examination are not explained by any medical condition from which the child may be suffering. Here the doctor is attempting to
11. Section 47 Enquiries (as part of Child and Family Single Assessment) 9. Referral to Children's Social Care 7. Managing an Individual Case 6. Barriers to the Identification of FII 15. Record Keeping
- Good record keeping is paramount to good practice and is an important part of accountability of professionals. Clear and accurate records ensure that there is a documented account of an agency, or professional's involvement with a child and/or family. Records are an essential source of evi
4. How is the Child Harmed? Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
- Click here to view Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template.
Appendix 1: Preparing a FII Chronology
- The information available to a meeting about a possible case of Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is enormous and can be difficult to organise. As complete a picture of the concerns is essential. All information will need examining, and the integrating of all reports will be necessary. I
- Children Act 1989
Safeguarding Children in Whom Illness is Fabricated or Induced. (2009, RCPCH)
Every Child and Young Person in Milton Keynes Matters (2006). Milton Keynes: Learning and Development Directorate
Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, October 2009, Fabricated or Ind
16. Supervision and Support
- It is acknowledged that working with families where it is suspected that illness is fabricated or induced is demanding, and can be distressing and stressful.
Agencies should have a supervision policy, which identifies how, where and when staff can access supervision about such cases. Eve
2. Potential Warning Signs or Indicators
- Surveillance by siblings or cousins at school;
Decline in behaviour, engagement, performance or punctuality at school;
Not allowed to attend extra curricular activities or go on to further/higher education;
Illness of grandparents or relatives in country of origin;
Request for extended lea
3. The "One Chance" Rule
- All practitioners working with victims of forced marriage and honour-based violence need to be aware of the “one chance” rule. That is, they may only have one chance to speak to a potential victim and thus they may only have one chance to save a life. This means that all practitioners
- Nationally, hundreds of young people (particularly girls and young women) some as young as 13 are forced into marriage each year. Some are taken overseas to marry whilst others may be married in the UK.
Forced marriage is not the same as an arranged marriage in which both spouses can choos
Pre-birth need for Multi-Agency Support
- It is important to assess the needs and provide support for learning disabled parents as early as possible.
The GP and midwife should make referrals to the community team for people with learning disabilities (CTPLD) for an Early Help Assessment of the pregnant woman's needs and capacity f
4. What To Do if a Child or Young Person is Facing Forced Marriage
- Practitioners should:
See the child or young person immediately in a secure and private place where the conversation cannot be overheard;
See them on their own - even if they attend with others;
Obtain details of the child or young person under threat including:
Their full name;
Age and da
5. Legal Position
- The minimum age at which a person is able to give consent to marriage is 16; a person between the ages of 16 and 18 may not marry without consent from all those with Parental Responsibility (unless the young person is a widow or widower).
Legislation on Forced Marriage
The Anti-social Beha
This chapter outlines the key points in relation to forced marriage.
Definition of Learning Disability
Some people with 'learning disabilities' prefer to refer to themselves as having learning difficulties; other people have difficulties in learning but do not meet the core criteria for an individual to be described as 'learning disabled'.
The term 'learnin
Post Birth of Child
- Where evidence of a learning disability is present in one or both parents, the paramount consideration of all the agencies will be the welfare and protection of the child/ren with each service providing assessment and support directed at the family members identified as the primary focus o
Download the MK Together Safer, Happier, Healthier Partnership Handbook 2019/20
2. Relevant Law & Government Requirements
- The main sources of law and other relevant requirements with respect to information sharing and confidentiality in child protection are the:
Common law duty of confidence;
European Convention on Human Rights (via its introduction into English law in the Human Rights Act 1998);
1. Local Context and Justification for Sharing Information
- Information sharing guidance is designed to help every worker be able be confident about sharing share in relation to vulnerable children.
Research and experience have demonstrated that to keep children safe from harm it is essential that workers maximise the potential for safe partnership
7. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
- The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (DVDS) commenced on 8 March 2014. The DVDS gives members of the public a formal mechanism to make enquires about an individual who they are in a relationship with, or who is in a relationship with someone they know, where there is a concern that th
6. Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme
- The Child Sex Offender Review (CSOR) Disclosure Scheme is designed to provide members of the public with a formal mechanism to ask for disclosure about people they are concerned about, who have unsupervised access to children and may therefore pose a risk. This scheme builds on existing, w
- 5.1 Access Rights of Data Subjects
If a party to this agreement receives a subject access application under section 7 of the Data Protection Act and personal data is identified as having originated from another signatory agency, it will be the responsibility of the receiving agency to cont
4. Practice Requirements for Information Transfer
- The net result of legislation and worker guidance as summarised above is that workers may share information for a child protection purpose without the consent of the subject:
To protect the vital interests of the person;
Where seeking permission might place the child or another person at s
3. Further Guidance for the Children's Workforce
- See 'What To Do If You're Worried a Child is Being Abused'.
This chapter was updated in October 2015 to include links to new Department for Education Guidance on Information Sharing.
2. Non Compliance
- There may be occasions when an organisation represented on MKSCB is thought not to be performing effectively. Efforts should be made to resolve the issue at a local level between agencies. The MKSCB will offer support if required. If the issue is not resolved or the MKSCB is not satisfied
3. Conflict Resolution between Board Partners
- If there is a dispute between MKSB partners, efforts should be made to resolve the issue at a local level between agencies. The MKSB will offer support if required. If the issue cannot be resolved, the MKSB Chair, in consultation with the DCS, will convene a joint meeting of the parties 28
- For complaints concerning a child protection conference or related processes, please refer to Child Protection Conferences Procedure, Section 12, Complaints by Service Users.
If your complaint concerns the operational work of a particular individual or organisation, you should use the exis
This guidance was updated in April 2015, when information was added on the Whistleblowing Helpline, and a link provided to guidance published for staff in health and social care in relation to Raising Concerns at Work.
Staff, through fears about repercussions, may find it diffi
This chapter deals with Freedom of Information Act requests.
Data Protection requests (i.e. requests for an individual's own personal data) must be dealt with within 40 days and should be passed to the officer responsible for administering these as soon as possible. There may be some rest
8. Abbreviations and Acronyms
Child Abuse Investigation Unit
Care of Next Infant
Children's Social Care
Local Policing Area
Sudden Infant Death
Senior Investigating Officer (Police)
Sudden Unexpected Death of an Infant
5. Coroner’s Investigation and Inquest
HM Coroner in Milton Keynes holds an investigation into all sudden unexpected deaths in childhood and an inquest will be held if a cause of death is not ascertained. The information shared as in the above paragraphs will contribute to this process.
The purpose of an Inquest is to
6. After the Inquest
If the verdict of the inquest is that abuse and neglect caused or contributed to the death the Police and Children’s Social Care will act accordingly and the need for a Serious Case Review will be considered (if these have not previously occurred).
If the child’s family have an
7. When a Child Dies Out of Area
- Where a child (usually resident in Milton Keynes) dies out of area, communication should go through the MKSCB single point of contact: 01908 254373 who and we will invoke these procedures.
4. Initial Case Review Discussion
The duty Social Worker is contacted by the responsible consultant or Duty Detective and a Multi Agency Referral Form (MARF) is completed by them and forwarded to the Milton Keynes Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH). An initial Case Review Discussion should be held between the lead p
3. Agency Roles and Responsibilities
Once a child has been declared dead, the Coroner has jurisdiction over the body and all that pertains to it.
The majority of unexpected deaths in childhood are natural tragedies, but a minority are a consequence of ignorance, neglect, abuse or homicide. The investigation should kee
This procedure was first produced in response to 'Working Together to Safeguard Children, 2006'. It has since been updated in response to local and national developments, including the revised Working Together 2015. It forms the basis of the inter-agency response to an unexpected death
A Guide to Investigating Child Deaths (College of Policing, 2014)
At all stages of these procedures, practitioners should consider:
Whether a referral for child protection under Section 47 is required;
Whether the criteria for a Serious Case Review (or other review) might
2. Notes on Definitions
"Childhood" is defined as the time from live birth (irrespective of gestation) until the attainment of the age of 18 years. By far the largest group of child deaths occurs in the perinatal period (0 - 7 days). For "rapid response" procedures these infants will not be routinely included
The following may give consent to a paediatric assessment:
A child of sufficient age and understanding i.e. one who is 'Gillick Competent';
Any person with Parental Responsibility;
The local authority when the child is the subject of a Care Order (though the parent/carer should be inf
Please see Interagency Interface between serious incidents reporting in health services, serious case reviews and child death reviews.
LAC (2004)12 updated the arrangements for local authorities to provide statutory notifications on a form supplied to each local aut
- Updated Chapters
Child Protection Conference
A link has been added to Department for Education Guidance on Working with Foreign Authorities in Child Protection Cases.
Self Harm and Suicidal Behaviour
Section 4, Further Information is new and contains links to Guidance
- Updated Chapters
MKSCB Levels of Need
The MKSCB Levels of Need document was approved by the MKSCB on 30 September 2015. The revised document incorporates locals changes in relation to the MK multi-agency safeguarding hub (MASH), additional information in the tables, and
- Updated Chapters
Child Protection Conferences
This chapter was revised in Section 7, Information for Conference and should be re-read.
Female Genital Mutilation
The chapter was further updated in April 2016 to reflect the Serious Crime Act 2015’ amendments to the Fem
Policies, Principles and Values
This chapter has been updated to reflect Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013.
Information Sharing & Confidentiality
This chapter has been updated to include information on the Child Sex Offender Disclosure
This page is correct as printed on Tuesday 18th of February 2020 03:20:02 AM please refer back to this website (http://mkscb.procedures.org.uk) for updates.