||Many families who seek help for their children, or for whom others express concern, are multiply disadvantaged and may face chronic poverty, social isolation. Additionally they may suffer from problems associated with living in disadvantaged areas, such as high crime, poor housing, childcare, transport and education services and limited employment opportunities. Many lack a wage earner.
||Racism and racial harassment may provide further stress to families in these circumstances.
||Poverty may mean the children live in crowded or unsuitable accommodation, have poor diets, health problems or disability, are vulnerable to accidents and may lack ready access to educational and leisure facilities.
||Children may be affected by the association of social exclusion with parental depression, learning disability and long term health problems. Agency assessments should consider the role of all agencies in providing support to the excluded child and family. Referrals to Children's Social Care should be made if the cumulative impact of the child's circumstances indicates that s/he is a child in need or that they are suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm.