The MK Levels of Need document has been reviewed and revised by MASH (Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub) colleagues to reflect current terminology, eg Early Help Assessment (EHA) replaces CAF. The 'Levels tables' have also been updated to include safeguarding concerns reported to MAS
Did you Know?
- It is estimated that there are between 250,000 and 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK – this equates to one child for every problem drug user.
It is estimated that there are nearly a million children in the UK who are currently living with an alcohol dependant parent, often
- Neglect of parental responsibilities, leading to physical, emotional or psychological harm;
Family resources are used to finance the parents' dependency – this may be characterised by inadequate food, heating and clothing for the children;
Unsuitable care givers or visitors;
Working in Partnership
- By working together, services can take many practical steps to protect and improve health and well being of children affected by parental substance misuse.
Liaise with relevant partner agencies, if they consider that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer Signif
What to do if a Child or Young Person is Affected by Parental Substance Misuse
- Professionals should:
Assess the level of risk of harm to the child or young person:
If the child is suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm refer to Children’s Social Care;
If the child is in imminent danger contact the police on 999;
If the child has unmet needs undertake an Ear
- When a professional is aware a pregnant woman or her partner is involved in significant substance misuse, e.g.:
The woman’s use is characterised by use of multiple drugs / drugs and alcohol;
The family’s lifestyle is known or reported to be chaotic and / or unhygienic;
Children and families from black or minority ethnic groups (both white and black skinned) may have experienced harassment, racial and / or religious discrimination and institutional racism.
Families may suffer religious and/or racial harassment sufficient in frequency and seriousness to un
Many families who seek help for their children, or for whom others express concern, are multiply disadvantaged and may face chronic poverty, social isolation. Additionally they may suffer from problems associated with living in disadvantaged areas, such as high crime, poor housing, ch
3. Testing of Children
- The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test can provide accurate information about the HIV status of babies from the first few weeks of life. Given the advances in treatment, there are real advantages in determining the HIV status of children who may have been exposed to the risk of infection
- HIV status should normally only be disclosed with the informed consent of the person concerned. Where the child is infected, their consent to the sharing of information about their status must be sought if they are of sufficient age and understanding. Otherwise, consent should be from the
5. Monitoring and Treatment of Positive Children
- The progression of HIV disease is not the same in children as in adults, and the range of drugs used to treat children is not as extensive. Children and young people who are positive will require careful monitoring to ensure that the appropriate treatment options are considered at the righ
4. Rejection of Medical Advice / Testing / Non-engagement
- During Pregnancy
Parents may refuse intervention to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Such refusal may be due to a number of reasons, for example cultural beliefs, concerns about bonding, or in order to maintain confidentiality about HIV status.
Under UK law, unborn children do not
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is never in itself a child protection issue. However, there will be a small number of families affected by HIV in which child protection issues arise, as they do in other families where there may be concerns about children. In some instances, concerns wil
- The most common route of HIV infection in a child is through vertical transmission - transmission of HIV infection from their mothers - but there may also be concern that children may have been exposed to infection where:
Children have received medical treatment in countries without access
Read in conjunction with:
Consent: A guide for children and young people. 2001. Department of Health;
‘Don’t Forget the Children’: guidance for the HIV testing of children with HIV-positive parents. 2009. BHIVA, CHIVA and GASHH.
Milton Keynes Hospital Foundation Trust (MKHFT) staff
The following procedures have been developed from the recommendations into the death of Victoria Climbié.
These procedures apply whenever there are child protection concerns about a child admitted to hospital.
3. Where Abuse and/or Neglect is either Definite or Appears to be likely
Where abuse and/or neglect is either definite or appears to be likely the following should be noted:
The admission dataset should include the child's name, age, the full address and names of both caregivers (where there are two), the GP, Health Visitor and the name of the child's scho
If hospital staff become aware a baby about to be, or just born is the product of 'commissioning' and have grounds to doubt the commissioners identity / suitability to care for the baby, or the degree of voluntarism (payment beyond reasonable expenses is unlawful), they should contact Chil
5. Responsibilities of Children's Social Care Staff
- A referral may be received regarding concerns of parental mental ill-health expressed by the referrer or arising during a Child and Family Single Assessment, but there is no information about involvement of Adult Mental Health Services. As part of the routine checks, the assessment team sh
- For the purposes of safeguarding children the mental health or mental illness of the parent or carer should be considered in the context of the impact of the illness on the care provided to the child.
While mental illness can be compatible with good parenting, some parents with a severe me
2. Recognition and Referral
- The majority of parents who suffer significant mental ill-health are able to care for and safeguard their child/ren and/or unborn child, but it is essential always to assess the implications for each child in the family.
In some cases, the parent's condition may seriously affect the safety
4. Responsibilities of Adult Mental Health Staff When Working With Adults Who Have Parental Responsibilities
- Any mental health worker who becomes concerned about the welfare of a child should make a referral to Children Social Care (see Referral and Assessment Procedure).
The needs of children should be explicitly considered within the risk assessment and Care Programme Approach (CPA) assessment
3. Importance of Working in Partnership
- Meeting the needs of parents with mental health problems and their families raises practical, professional and organisational challenges for services. SCIE’s guide, Think child, think parent, think family (2009, revised 2011) (see SCIE website) addresses these challenges, and recommends
See also guidance for adult mental health professionals on the National Reporting and Learning Service website.
- Monitoring of all incidents involving restrictive physical intervention is essential in order to identify where lessons can be learnt and to prevent the build up of unsafe practice.
The Manager, person responsible, or nominated person, will monitor each incident, this will include meeting
4. Legislation National Guidance Policy
- The main sources of law and other relevant requirements with respect to restrictive physical intervention are:
Health & Safety at Work Act 1974;
Children Act 1989;
Children Act 1989 Guidance and Regulations volume 4, Residential Care paragraphs 1.82 - 1.91 and 8.10 1991;
Guidance on Pe
13. Recording and Reporting
- All agencies must develop their own agreed format and documentation for recording any incident, in accordance with the expectations outlined in 13.2. An incident must be clearly recorded in written format and reported by a member of staff involved in restrictive physical intervention withi
- To promote the safe and effective management of behaviour to safeguard and protect children and young people.
To promote the development of effective relationships and interpersonal skills and the focus on de-escalation to minimise the need to use restrictive physical intervention.
- This inter-agency procedure applies to all agencies working with children and young people in Milton Keynes, except Thames Valley Police due to the statutory legislation under which the Police Service is regulated, and its oversight by the Independent Police Complaints Commission.
- Restraint is defined as "direct physical contact to overpower an individual." (Hart 2008:3 Restrictive Physical Intervention in Secure Children's Homes. DCSF)
Secure Accommodations is any accommodation which has 'the purposed of restricting liberty' (Section 25, Children Act 1989). No chil
- Restrictive physical intervention is only one technique in a range of possible responses to threatening or actual violent behaviour. It must therefore only be used when other methods, not involving the use of force, are unlikely to achieve the desired outcome. Management of behaviour shoul
6. Levels of Interaction to Manage Children's Behaviour
- There are 3 levels of interaction which can be used as an attempt to manage children's behaviour:-
Management by simple physical presence, involving no contact: e.g. standing in doorway to prevent exit, or being assertive in emphasising verbal instructions;
Guiding or touching a child to p
7. Preventative Strategies
- Management and staff should establish a positive culture aimed at creating and promoting a calm environment in order to minimise the risk of incidents that might require the use of restrictive physical intervention.
Effective relationships formed between young people and staff are central
- Agencies must assess the level and type of training required to be delivered to staff during their induction period. The agency will decide what level and type of training is appropriate following an assessment of risk and need. Such training may include:
9. Use of Restrictive Physical Intervention
- The proper use of restrictive physical intervention requires judgement, skill, and knowledge of non-harmful methods of control.
A range of legislation and guidance exists (see section 4) regarding the criteria under which restrictive physical intervention can be used in different settings.
10. Doctrine of Minimum Force
- If restrictive physical intervention is used without reasonable cause, it could under common law constitute unlawful restriction of liberty or under criminal law, assault.
Force is only lawful if the use complies with the legal doctrine of minimum force. This specifies that any force used
11. Permissible Restrictive Physical Intervention
- Whenever possible, staff must give a verbal warning, repeated if necessary, before undertaking restrictive physical intervention. This may bring the situation under control.
If a child needs restrictive physical intervention where possible the staff member should ensure there is another me
12. Following use of Restrictive Physical Intervention
- As soon as a child is in control of their behaviour or is safe they must be released from restrictive physical intervention. The situation may not have been resolved for the child and a further period of close supervision may be necessary.
As soon as is practicable staff must ask whether t
8. Sharing Information with Parents and Carers
Decisions to share information with parents and carers will be taken using professional judgement, consideration of whether the young person is Fraser Competent, and in consultation with these Child Protection Procedures. Decisions will be based on the child's age, maturity and abilit
- Department for Education, Sexual violence and sexual harassment between children in schools and colleges (December 2017)
All young people have a right to confidential advice from professionals about sexual health/sexually transmitted infections, contraception and relationships.
The purpose of these procedures is to clarify the process/responsibilities of practitioners with regards to assessing
7. Young People Age 16-17 Years
Sexual activity involving 16 or 17 year olds, though unlikely to involve an offence, may still involve harm or the risk of harm. Professionals should still bear in mind the considerations and processes outlined in this guidance in assessing the risk and should share information as app
6. Young People Between 13 and 16 Years
Sexual activity with a child under 16 years of age is also an offence. Where it is consensual it may be less serious than if the child were under 13 years, but may nevertheless have serious consequences for the welfare of the young person. Consideration should be given in every case
5. Young People Under the Age of 13 Years
Under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, children under the age of 13 years are considered of insufficient age to give consent to sexual activity.
Cases involving under-13s should always be discussed with a nominated child protection lead in the organisation. Under the Sexual Offences
In working with young people, it must always be made clear to them that absolute confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, and that there will be some circumstances where the needs of the young person can only be safeguarding by sharing information with others.
This discussion with the
All young people, regardless of gender, or sexual orientation, who are believed to be engaged in, or planning to be engaged in, sexual activity must have their needs for health education, support and/or protection assessed by the agency involved.
In assessing the nature of any pa
The minimum age at which young people, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, can consent to have lawful sexual intercourse, is sixteen years of age.
With respect to a child under the age of 13, her/his actual consent to any sexual activity is irrelevant because the law presum
RELEVANT CHAPTERS AND GUIDANCE
See also the Tackling Trafficking Toolkit developed by London Safeguarding Children Boardand the National Crime Agency for information about the National Referral Mechanism.
This chapter was updated in March 2014; Section 10, Resources / Further Inf
10. Resources / Further Information
- Safeguarding Children who may have been Trafficked; Practice Guidance, Home Office and Department for Education (2011)
On the Safe Side, Principles for the Safe Accommodation of child Victims of Trafficking, Ecpat Uk (2011)
Child Trafficking, Begging and Organised Crime, Ecpat Uk Briefing
9. Missing Children at Risk of Being Trafficked
If a child, who is at risk of being trafficked, goes missing, residential staff / foster carers must immediately inform Children's Social Care the social worker, team/group manager or Emergency Social Work Team, who must contact the police control room and Immigration Service.
8. Issues for Professionals to Consider When Working With Trafficked & Exploited Children
Children who have been trafficked and exploited are likely to need some of the following services:
Appropriately trained interpreting;
Someone to spend time with them and build up a level of trust;
Counselling via child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS);
4. Referral and Initial Information Gathering
The social worker should obtain as much information as possible from the referrer, including the child's name, date of birth, address, name of carer/guardian, address if different, phone number, country of origin, home language and whether s/he speaks English, names of any siblings or
2. Port of Entry
Milton Keynes does not have a port of entry.
Immigration officers undertake the identification of children at risk of harm. Children who do not meet the immigration criteria for entry and children, who, irrespective of their immigration status are believed to be at risk of harm if
3. Children Already in this Country
Professionals should be familiar with the advice about migrant children and refer to Children's Social Care where there are concerns about such children including suspicions of trafficking concerning a particular child/ren victim, adult/s perpetrators or suspicious activity at specific
7. Children in Care
The social worker should seek a placement proportionate to the need to protect the child. This may include protection from possible abduction and in some cases require surveillance cameras in operation, monitoring of phone calls and intensive supervision. If required an escort must be
This procedure has been developed to address concerns about the disappearance, following arrival in this country, of vulnerable children from abroad, by:
Identifying and protecting those who may be suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm through trafficking and exploitation;
6. Section 47 Enquiry
Whenever a practitioner or volunteer becomes concerned that a child is suffering or is likely to suffer Significant Harm, a referral must be made to Children's Social Care and the local police CAIU in accordance with procedures in Recognition & Response Procedure, Duty to Refer to
5. Action After Initial Information Gathering
On completion of initial information gathering the social worker must discuss the referral with a team/group manager to agree and plan next steps:
No further action if no concerns are identified;
Commence a Child and Family Single Assessment to to decide whether appropriate arrangeme
A definition of bullying, which is provided by the Anti-Bullying Alliance, is:
"The intentional hurting of one person by another, where the relationship involves an imbalance of power. It is usually repetitive or persistent, although some one-off attacks can have a continuing harmful effec
4. Making an Application
- Applications can be made:
Online, at Gov.uk;and
By telephone to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority. Customer Service Centre advisors can assist in making a claim over the telephone.
The following supporting evidence must be supplied:
Proof of satisfaction of
A Guide to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 2012.
This chapter was added to the Procedures Manual in October 2014; it contains guidance on the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme administered by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority.
5. Accepting a Payment
- Legal advice should be sought without delay as to whether or not the offer should be accepted.
The acceptance form must be completed and returned within 56 days of it being sent. If it is not returned within 56 days, and no written request has been made for a review or an extension of tim
9. Advancing Money from the Award to the Child 2. Eligibility
- A child/young person may be eligible if they:
Were a direct victim of a crime of violence;
Were not to blame for the incident;
Sustained an injury while taking an exceptional and justified risk, while trying to remedy or prevent a crime;
Sustained a mental injury as a result of witnessing
- In general, applications must be made within 2 years of the event giving rise to the claim.
Different rules apply, however, where the applicant was under 18 years of age on the date of the incident.
The application should always be made as soon as possible. However, the CICA recognise that
10. When a Young Person is 18
- When the young person reaches the age of 18 years, responsibility for handling the money awarded by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority will be handed over to him/her unless he/she is felt to be incapable of dealing with it.
If the CICA receive evidence which shows it would not be
9. Advancing Money from the Award to the Child
- The CICA may allow advances if these are needed for the child’s sole benefit, education or welfare (not for general spending money).
They may consider making a full payment if the child is 16 or 17 years of age and living independently.
The CICA will need evidence (normally a receipt)
8. The Award
- Payment of compensation is usually by a single lump sum, but if the medical situation is unclear, one or more interim payments may be made.
No compensation will be paid until the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority receives an acceptance of the award in writing. Every effort must ther
7. Appealing Decisions
- A review decision can be challenged by appealing, within 90 days of the date of the review decision, to the First-tier Tribunal (Criminal Injuries Compensation). An appeal form will be sent with the review decision. The form and supporting evidence should be sent to:
First-tier Tribunal (
6. Reviewing Decisions
- If legal advice is received that the decision should be reviewed, written application for a review must be submitted within 56 days of the date of the original decision. A review form will be sent with the decision. Any additional evidence in support of the claim must be submitted.
10. When a Young Person is 18 1. Introduction
- The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme is a government-funded scheme to compensate victims of violent crime, administered by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA). Where a Looked After child appears to qualify (see Section 2, Eligibility), legal advice must always be sou
- Revelations of widespread abuse and neglect of children living away from home have done much to raise awareness of the particular vulnerability of children in these circumstances.
These circumstances include boarding schools, children's homes, foster carers, private fostering, hospitals, p
Children in Care
- Social workers should ensure that a Child in Care has opportunities to see her/him alone regularly and at key points.
The Independent Reviewing Officer should also ensure s/he has the opportunity of seeing the child and speaking to them on their own (if age and developmentally appropriate)
- A private fostering arrangement is one made without the involvement of Children's Social Care for the care of a child under the age of 16 (under 18, if disabled) by someone other than a parent or close relative for 28 days or more. Close relative is defined as "a grandparent, brother, sist
Foreign Exchange Visits
- Children on foreign exchange visits typically stay with a family selected by the school in the host country. Where this is for a period of less than 28 days they are not 'privately fostered'.
In these circumstances the only agency involved is education, with the school making arrangements
Children in Hospital
- The NHS Framework for Safeguarding Vulnerable People in the Reformed NHS was published in 2013.
Hospitals should be child friendly, safe and healthy places for children, with care in an appropriate location and environment. Children should not be cared for in an adult ward.
S.85 of the Chi
Children in Custody
- Young Offenders Institutions which accommodate Juveniles (16-18) must have policies and procedures in place which set out their duties to safeguard and promote the welfare of the children and young people in their care.
Specific institutions in an area must ensure that there are links in p
2. Action by Children's Social Care and Police
It is important in all these case to establish whether diplomatic immunity may be claimed and to what extent. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office is prepared to give advice on this point and the team/group manager should contact the 'immunities section of the protocol department' on 02
When children are brought to the attention of police or community because of behaviour problems, it may indicate vulnerability, poor supervision or neglect. It is important to consider if these are children in need and if multi-agency support should be provided.
A range of powers should be
1. Legal Position
Where there is concern that a child who is a member of a diplomat's family is at risk of abuse caution must be exercised in taking protective measures. Diplomats and members of their household have immunity from civil, criminal and administrative jurisdiction. They cannot be detained,
2. Action by Children's Social Care and Police
Involvement of family members in sex work does not necessarily mean children will suffer Significant Harm. Risks to the children in these circumstances come from the following potential sources:
Exposure of the child to unsuitable adults and sexual activity / materials, especially if the p
Definition of Learning Disability
Some people with 'learning disabilities' prefer to refer to themselves as having learning difficulties; other people have difficulties in learning but do not meet the core criteria for an individual to be described as 'learning disabled'.
The term 'learnin
Post Birth of Child
- Where evidence of a learning disability is present in one or both parents, the paramount consideration of all the agencies will be the welfare and protection of the child/ren with each service providing assessment and support directed at the family members identified as the primary focus o
Pre-birth need for Multi-Agency Support
- It is important to assess the needs and provide support for learning disabled parents as early as possible.
The GP and midwife should make referrals to the community team for people with learning disabilities (CTPLD) for an Early Help Assessment of the pregnant woman's needs and capacity f
2. Key Concepts
The Children Act 1989 provides the legal framework for defining the situations in which local authorities have a duty to make enquiries about what, if any, action they should take to safeguard or promote the welfare of a child.
Section 47 of the Act requires that
3. Categories of Abuse and Neglect
Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.
It may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a
6. Referral by Members of the Public 6. Referral by Members of the Public
When members of the public are concerned about the welfare of a child or an unborn baby, they should contact the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH).
Any professional from another agency receiving a child protection referral from a member of the public must:
Advise the member of
5. Professional Response
Being Alert to Children's Welfare
Everybody who works or has contact with children (or pregnant women) should be able to recognise, and know how to act upon, evidence that a child's health or development (or that of the unborn baby) is or may be being impaired and especially when the
4. Recognising Abuse and Neglect
- The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has guidance on recognising child abuse and neglect.
3. Categories of Abuse and Neglect 1. Introduction
This chapter provides:
Definitions of Significant Harm, abuse and neglect;
Information to assist the general recognition of circumstances where a child may be suffering or likely to suffer abuse or neglect;
Advice on the response to such recognition, including response to the child, p
4. Recognising Abuse and Neglect
The factors described in this section are frequently found in cases of child abuse. Their presence is not proof that abuse has occurred, but:
Must be regarded as indicators of possible Significant Harm;
Justify the need for careful assessment and discussion with designated / named / l
14. Recording of Section 47 Enquiries 15. Feedback From Enquiries 9. Involving Parents, Family Members and Children
The social worker has the prime responsibility to engage with family members in order to assess the overall capacity of the family to safeguard the child, as well as ascertain the facts of the situation causing concern. Children should always be seen and communicated with alone by the
1. Duty to Conduct Section 47 Enquiries 13. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries 12. Analysis & Assessment of Risk 11. Referrals for Medical Assessment by Children's Social Care/Police Child Abuse Investigation Unit 9. Involving Parents, Family Members and Children 3. Threshold for Section 47 Enquiries 4. Role of Duty / Allocated Social Worker 8. Agency Information Sharing 6. Single & Joint Agency Investigations 8. Agency Information Sharing
The social worker must consult with other agencies involved with the child and family in order to obtain a fuller picture of the child's circumstances and those of any others in the household, including risk factors and parenting strengths.
Generally permission is sought from pare
15. Feedback From Enquiries
Parents, and children of sufficient age and appropriate level of understanding, together with those agencies and professionals significantly involved in the Section 47 Enquiry, should be given written information on the outcome of the enquiry (in advance of any subsequent Child Protec
7. Immediate Protection
Where there is a risk to the life of a child or the possibility of serious immediate harm, the police officer or social worker must act quickly to secure the safety of the child.
Emergency action may be necessary as soon as a referral is received or at any point of involvement with
6. Single & Joint Agency Investigations
Police & Children's Social Care Liaison
The primary responsibility of CAIU staff is to undertake criminal investigations of suspected, alleged or actual crime. Children's Social Care has the statutory duty to make, or cause to be made, enquiries when circumstances defined in Sect
5. Strategy Discussion
If there is reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer Significant Harm, Children's Social Care should convene a Strategy Discussion. This may take place following a referral or at any other time if concerns about Significant Harm emerge.
4. Role of Duty / Allocated Social Worker
Enquiries must be undertaken by a suitably qualified social worker, either a duty officer or the allocated social worker on an open case.
The duty / social worker must:
Obtain clear, detailed information about the concerns, suspicion or allegation;
Obtain history and background in
3. Threshold for Section 47 Enquiries
A child's status - e.g. 'in need', or suffering or likely to suffer Significant Harm must be ascribed in a flexible manner, which recognises the possibility of change and a consequent need to re-ascribe that status.
Section 47 Enquiries start when:
There is reasonable cause to
2. Section 47 Enquiries
Section 47 Enquiries must be initiated, usually following a Child and Family Single Assessment, whenever the threshold criteria are met.
Section 47 enquiries may be justified at the point of referral, during the early consideration of a referral, the Child and Family Single Assessm
1. Duty to Conduct Section 47 Enquiries
Obligations and Responsibilities of All Agencies
All agencies have a duty (professional, and in many cases statutory) to assist and provide information in support of Section 47 Enquiries.
Responsibility of Children's Social Care
Children's Social Care has the:
General duty to
10. Meeting the Child
All children within the household must be directly communicated with during an enquiry (unless the Strategy Discussion decides this is not appropriate). Those who are the focus of concern should be seen alone by the Lead Social Worker, subject to age and preferably with parental perm
12. Analysis & Assessment of Risk
The scope and focus of the Child and Family Single Assessment during the Section 47 Enquiry will be that of a Child and Family Single Assessment which specifically addresses the risks for the child/ren. It should address the assessment framework dimensions and specifically:
13. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries
At the completion of the planned enquiry, the social worker and line manager should decide how to proceed, following Strategy Discussion/s with relevant agencies and professionals. The aim of the Strategy Discussion at this point is to share information, plan any further enquiries and
14. Recording of Section 47 Enquiries
All agencies must keep accurate and detailed records of information, actions and decisions relating to the Section 47 Enquiry, using any agency 'pro-formas' (legibly) signed and dated by the staff or inputted into their electronic record.
Both CAIU and Children's Social Care reco
11. Referrals for Medical Assessment by Children's Social Care/Police Child Abuse Investigation Unit
The Strategy Discussion will determine, in consultation with the paediatrician, the need for and timing of a medical assessment for the child and for any other children in the household. If the child is in urgent need of medical attention see Immediate Protection.
1. Referral & Referral Criteria 3. Child and Family Single Assessment 3. Child and Family Single Assessment
- 3.1 Assessments under the Children Act 1989
Under the Children Act 1989, local authorities undertake assessments of the needs of individual children to determine what services to provide and action to take:
A Child in Need is defined under the Children Act 1989 as a child who is unlikely t
All contacts / referrals to the MASH should initially be regarded as children in potential need, and evaluated on the day of receipt (and no later than within 1 working day), and a decision made regarding the next course of action.
When taking a referral, staff must establish as m
1. Referral & Referral Criteria
A member of the public or a professional may make referrals to the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH). On the basis of a screening of the referral (see Section 2, Screening) a decision will be made as to whether further intervention should be initiated and the level of response.
2. Multi-Agency Meeting or Strategy Discussion 3. Pre-Birth Children & Families Assessment 4. Where Family Plan to Move/have Moved 4. Where Family Plan to Move/have Moved
Where there are significant concerns and the whereabouts of the mother are not known, Children's Social Care must inform other agencies and local authorities in accordance with the Missing Child, Adult or Family Procedure.
Where there are significant concerns and the case is being
Where agencies or individuals anticipate that prospective parents may need support services to care for their baby or that the baby is likely to suffer Significant Harm, a referral to Children's Social Care must be made at the earliest opportunity.
The Recognising Vulnerability of
2. Multi-Agency Meeting or Strategy Discussion
When a referral is received by the MASH team and a pre birth assessment is undertaken the children and family assessment gathers information from all relevant agencies, working in a multi-agency approach. If significant safeguarding concerns are raised as part of that assessment Child
3. Pre-Birth Children & Families Assessment
The overall aim of the assessment is to identify and understand:
Parental and family history, life style and support networks and their likely impact on the child's welfare;
Causes of concerns and their likely impact on the baby's welfare;
Strengths in the family envir
Organisational responses to allegations by an adult of abuse experienced as a child must be of as high a standard as a response to current abuse because:
There is a significant likelihood that a person who abused a child/ren in the past will have continued and may still be doing so;
As soon as it is apparent an adult is revealing childhood abuse, the member of staff must record what is said by the service user and the responses given by the staff member. A chronology should be undertaken and all records dated and the authorship made clear by a legible signature or
1. What is the LADO?
The Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) is the person who should be notified when there are allegations against a person who works with children that is paid, unpaid, volunteers, casual, agency or anyone self-employed.
They work independently of agencies to be able to review and e
Local Practice Guidance has been produced and is available from the Milton Keynes Council website: https://www.milton-keynes.gov.uk/children-young-people-families/children-s-social-care/the-role-of-the-lado-local-authority-designated-officer
School staff should also rea
4. Notifications to the LADO
- The LADO must be contacted within one working day in respect of all cases in which it is alleged that a person who works with children has:
behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed a child;
possibly committed a criminal offence against or related to a child; or
3. What should employers/you do?
- Anybody who has concerns about a practitioner working or volunteering with children should discuss their concerns with their manager, and/or their organisation’s Designated Safeguarding Lead. This discussion should help to clarify whether the criteria for making a LADO notification has b
- These procedures for managing allegations against people who work with children are overarching inter-agency procedures and should be used in conjunction with each individual agency's own policies and guidance.
This procedure applies whenever it is alleged that a person who works with chil
7. Key contacts and further information
- If you want to know more about the LADO role, or managing allegations against staff, The Local Authority Designated Officers in Milton Keynes can be contacted Monday to Friday on 01908 254307 or email LADO@milton-keynes.gov.uk
The documents listed below can be accessed via the Milton Ke
3. What should employers/you do? 5. Once a LADO notification is accepted
- A notification will be accepted by the LADO if it meets the above criteria set
Notifications will be subject to an initial evaluation and, where appropriate, involvement of other sectors including the police, social care, employers and regulatory bodies. The initial evaluation will focus
4. Notifications to the LADO 5. Once a LADO notification is accepted 6. Urgent Child Protection Concerns 7. Key contacts and further information 6. Urgent Child Protection Concerns
- Urgent child protection concerns should be discussed with:
Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH)
Telephone 9am - 5pm: 01908 253169/70
Out of hours: Emergency Social Work Team 01908 265545
1. Inter-Agency Collaboration 2. Types of Child Protection Conferences
Initial Child Protection Conference
Purpose of Initial Conference
The Initial Child Protection Conference brings together family members, the child (where appropriate), supporters/Advocates and those professionals most involved with the child and family to:
Share and evaluate info
3. Membership of Child Protection Conferences
A conference should consist of the smallest number of people consistent with effective case management, but the following should normally be invited:
Parents / carers;
Child (if of sufficient age and understanding (see Section 5, Involving Children);
Social / Lead Social Worker and te
4. Involving Parents/Carers & Family Members
Parents and carers must be invited to conferences (unless exclusion is justified as described (see Section 6, Exclusions of Family Members).
Information Provision & Planning
The social worker must facilitate their constructive involvement by ensuring in advance of the confere
3. Membership of Child Protection Conferences 11. Administrative Arrangements
Children’s Social Care is responsible for administering the child protection conference service.
The authority has clear arrangements for the organisation of child protection conferences including:
Information leaflets for children and for parents translated into appropriate l
10. Challenges by Professionals
The chair of a conference is responsible for the conference decision. S/he will consult conference members and aim for a consensus, but ultimately will make the decision and note any dissenting views.
When dissent occurs, the social worker must involve that agency in future decis
9. Actions & Decisions of the Conference
Threshold for a Child Protection Plan
The conference should consider the following question when determining whether the child needs to be the subject of a Child Protection Plan:
Has the child suffered Significant Harm?
Is the child likely to suffer Significant Harm?
5. Involving Children
The child, subject to their level of understanding, needs to be given the opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the conference.
In practice, the appropriateness of including an individual child must be assessed in advance and relevant arrangements made to facilitate attendance
8. Chairing of Conference
The chair of a child protection conference:
Should be a social work professional with sufficient status to ensure inter-agency commitment to the conference and child protection plan;
Should be independent of operational or line management responsibilities for the case;
6. Exclusion of Family Members From a Conference
Exceptionally it may be necessary to exclude one or more family members from part or all of a conference.
These situations will be rare, and the conference chair, must be notified as soon as possible by the social worker if it is considered necessary to exclude one or both parents
7. Information for Conference
Social Work Report
The Children and Families Assessment will be the social worker’s report for an Initial Child Protection Conference. The report will include details of the section 47 enquiry.
The minutes of the most recent Core Group Meeting prior to the Review Child Prote
1. Inter-Agency Collaboration
All agencies must make reasonable efforts to ensure that staff involved in child protection work are committed to:
Sharing of information
Careful preparation for conferences, including the provision of reports
Attendance at conferences
Contribution to decision-making
Delivery of actio
2. Types of Child Protection Conferences 4. Involving Parents/Carers & Family Members 7. Information for Conference 8. Chairing of Conference 9. Actions & Decisions of the Conference 6. Exclusion of Family Members From a Conference 10. Challenges by Professionals 11. Administrative Arrangements 12. Complaints about the Child Protection Conference
- See also Complaints, Non-Compliance and Conflict Resolution Procedure
12.1 Parents/carers or a child (considered by the Independent Chair to have sufficient understanding) may make a complaint in respect of one or more of the following aspects of the child protection conferenc
1. The Record
Children's Social Care IT systems should be capable of recording in the child's case record when the child is the subject of a Child Protection Plan. Each local authority's IT system should be capable of producing a list of all the children resident in the area (including those who hav
2. Managing and Providing Information About a Child
Each local authority should designate a manager, normally an experienced social worker, who has responsibility for:
Ensuring that records on children who have a Child Protection Plan are kept up to date;
Ensuring enquiries about children about whom there are concerns or who have child
2. Managing and Providing Information About a Child 6. Further Assessment
The Lead Social Worker and team/ group manager must, in supervision, regularly consider the risks to the child and whether further Children and Families Assessments or specialist assessments should be undertaken.
Further assessments may be helpful in the following circumstances:
The MK Council LCS system provides for the use of a 'child's plan' for all Children in Need who are not being Looked After or leaving care. Children's Social Care is responsible for ensuring these plans are developed and implemented.
A Child's Plan should cover how the following wil
2. Core Group
The Core Group is responsible for the formulation and implementation of the detailed Child Protection Plan, previously outlined at the conference.
All members of the Core Group are jointly responsible for:
Collecting information to assist the Lead Social Worker
3. Formulation of Child Protection Plan
The aim of the child protection plan is to:
Ensure the child is safe from harm and prevent him or her from suffering further harm;
Promote the child's health and development; and
Support the family and wider family members to safeguard and promote the welfare of their child, provided
9. Family Group Conferences
A Family Group Conference (FGC) is a meeting in which family members themselves, including children and young people, design their own plan to overcome identified problems and to respond to the concerns of professionals.
The FGC is convened by an independent co-ordinator, not direc
Intervention must be provided to give the child and family the best opportunities of achieving the required changes, identifying and developing the strengths within the family.
If a child cannot be cared for safely at home, s/he will need to be placed elsewhere whilst work is under
8. Death of a Child Subject to a Child Protection Plan
When a child who is subject to a Child Protection Plan dies, from whatever cause, the Lead Social Worker or their manager must immediately inform the Independent Conference Chair who will notify the Team Manager for Safeguarding and MK Together.
Working Together statutory guidance
5. Children's Social Care Team Manager Role
The team manager has a vital role in managing the progress of the case and supporting the Lead Social Worker.
The Manager should:
Read and countersign all significant recordings, assessments and decisions on the child's file / electronic record, including the chronology;
3. Formulation of Child Protection Plan 4. Lead Social Worker Role 5. Children's Social Care Team Manager Role 8. Death of a Child Subject to a Child Protection Plan 9. Family Group Conferences 4. Lead Social Worker Role
At every Initial Child Protection Conference or pre-birth conference, where a decision is made that a child should be the subject of a Child Protection Plan, the chair will name a qualified social worker, identified by the social work team/group manager, to fulfil the role of Lead Soci
2. Safeguards Pending Allocation
All professionals relevant to the 'outline' or 'agreed' Child Protection Plan as well as family members, must be informed in writing by a team manager if there is no allocated social worker and advised of routine and emergency professional contact arrangements, pending allocation.
2. Safeguards Pending Allocation 1. Priority Status
All child protection cases must be allocated to a named social worker and this should be awarded the highest priority in all local authorities.
Directors of Children's Services are professionally accountable for ensuring that there are sufficient human resources to provide the requ
2. Discontinuation of the Child Protection Plan
- When a child in care is no longer living in the situation which gave rise to the decision to make her/him subject of a Child Protection Plan and there is no current plan for her/him to be returned, her/his name may be removed (by means of a Child Protection Review Conference decision) from
1. Reviews, Care Planning & Conferences 1. Reviews, Care Planning & Conferences
- In Milton Keynes is is rare that a Looked After Child will remain the subject of a Child Protection Plan. will have both Children in Care Reviews and Child Protection Review Conferences. In the event it is deemed appropriate, the Childcare review should be arranged so as to follow the ch
2. Discontinuation of the Child Protection Plan 4. Indicators
Staff and carers should receive training on child sexual exploitation, and therefore be aware of the key indicators of child sexual exploitation. They include:
Physical symptoms (bruising suggestive of either physical or sexual assault);
Recurring or multipl
The Milton Keynes Child Exploitation Indicator tool can be accessed via the Resources page of the MK Together website.
The MK Together 2020 - 2022 Exploitation Strategy can also be accessed via the MK Together website.
This chapter was updated in 2020/21 t
3. Aim of Intervention
- The aims of intervention by agencies are to:
Identify any child who is being sexually exploited or who is at risk of sexual exploitation;
Identify and prosecute those adults involved in either coercing or abusing the child;
Protect the child from further abuse and offer support to overcome
2. Legal Position
- Girls and boys under the age of 16 cannot lawfully (though may in practice) consent to sexual intercourse. Anyone engaging in sexual activity (as defined in The Sexual Offences Act 2003) with a child under the age of 16 is committing an offence. Children under 13 years of age are presumed
- Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wan
10. Child Indicated by Other Local Authorities to be Missing 11. Children Missing Education 9. Decision-making for All Cases
This policy should be read in conjunction with the following:
Joint protocol concerning children and young people who run away or go missing from home or care-to include reports of absences from April 29th 2014 (Children’s Services Authorities and Thames Valley Police);
6. Children's Social Care must then Inform 5. Professionals should Inform 4. Circumstances for Implementation of Procedure 4. Circumstances for Implementation of Procedure
- This procedure applies if any child goes missing or cannot be traced and they are:
Looked After by the local authority (including placed with Foster Carers);
Missing from home or have run away and there is cause for concern;
Missing from a private fostering arrangement;
Missing from a resi
10. Child Indicated by Other Local Authorities to be Missing
- Each designated safeguarding manager must ensure that duty systems incorporate a method for keeping and referring to the notifications of children and/or families who are missing.
If, after two years there is no communication from the authority where the child and/or family went missing, t
- There is a distinction between young people who runaway and those who are forced to leave by their parents or carers.
Children and young people who are forced to leave will often not be reported missing.
If a child is taken overseas it may be appropriate to contact the Consular Directorate
2. Did You Know?
- In Milton Keynes around 400 children and young people go missing each year – of these some go missing repeatedly. There are around 650 incidents of missing children and young people per year in Milton Keynes.
Females are more likely to run away than males.
The peak age range for running
- Interim Guidance on the Management, Recording and Investigation of Missing Persons (2013)used by the Police uses the following definitions:
Missing: Anyone whose whereabouts cannot be established and where the circumstances are out of character or the context suggests the person may be sub
5. Professionals should Inform
- The Thames Valley Police Enquiry Centre on 101;
The Social Worker for the child (or duty officer out of hours) if a child is actively open to social care, and specifically if:
A child subject of a child protection referral or a Section 47 Enquiry;
A child with a Child Protection Plan goe
6. Children's Social Care must then Inform
- The designated safeguarding manager (01908 254307) if the child is subject to a Child Protection Plan;
The Independent Reviewing Officer if the child Looked After;
Any individuals known to hold Parental Responsibility for the child (not if Honour Based Violence is known or suspected);
7. Strategy Meeting
- If the child has not been traced within 5 working days a Strategy Meeting should be convened.
Members of the meeting will need to consider whether to circulate details of the missing child to other local authorities and other agencies in the area.
Consideration should be given to national
8. When a Child is Found
- Within 24 hours of the child’s return, the police will inform all relevant agencies of the child’s return and undertake a “safe and well” check. This will ensure as far as possible that it is safe to return to the home or care institution or placement that they have been absent fr
9. Decision-making for All Cases
- If the child is Looked After, the Independent Reviewing Officer would need to decide if an early Looked After Review is required. If the child is subject of a Child Protection Plan, the designated safeguarding manager must decide and record whether to bring forward the next review confere
11. Children Missing Education
- As a result of daily registration schools are particularly well placed to notice when a child has gone missing. If the missing child is subject to a Child Protection Plan, the head teacher must inform the allocated social worker immediately. If they are unavailable then they must contact
4. Protection and Action to be Taken
Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018 specifies that safeguarding children partnerships, local authorities and their partners should be commissioning and providing services for children who are likely to suffer, or may have suffered significant harm, due to radicalisation and extremi
- Radicalisation is defined as the process by which people come to support terrorism and extremism and, in some cases, to then participate in terrorist groups.
“Extremism is vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty a
- With regard to issues that may make an individual vulnerable to radicalisation, these can include:
Identity Crisis - Distance from cultural / religious heritage and uncomfortable with their place in the society around them;
Personal Crisis - Family tensions; sense of isolation; adolesc
4. Protection and Action to be Taken
- Any practitioner identifying concerns about the child or young person should report them to the designated safeguarding lead in their organisation, who will discuss these concerns with the police. A referral to the Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub should be made. Consideration of referrals to
- Protecting children and young people from radicalisation and extremism requires careful assessment and working collaboratively across agencies as initially concerns may be inconclusive and protecting child or young person against a potential risk can be dependent on a wider range of factor
6. Further Information
- Prevent Strategy
Prevent Duty Guidance: for England and Wales
Channel Duty Guidance: Protection vulnerable people from being draw into terrorism
ADCS resources Radicalisation and Extremism
Educate against Hate
Local Channel Prevention Officer: email@example.com
- Children and young people can be drawn into violence or they can be exposed to the messages of extremist groups by many means. These can include through the influence of family members or friends and/or direct contact with extremist groups and organisations or, increasingly, through the in
5. Child Protection Conference 5. Child Protection Conference
Consideration should be given to inviting a team representative to the conference of alleged abusers aged 10 or over, and informing YOT of the meeting in the case of younger children.
As well as carrying out all of its normal functions the child protection conference must consider
4. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries
The outcome of enquiries is as described in the Section 47 Enquiries Procedure. However, the position of the alleged victim and the alleged perpetrator must be considered separately.
If the information gathered in the course of enquiries suggests that the perpetrator is also a vict
2. Threshold for Referral 4. Outcome of Section 47 Enquiries 7. Multi Agency Child in Need Meetings
Where there are insufficient grounds for holding a Child Protection Conference, or where one has been held but a Child Protection Plan was not implemented, a multi-agency approach will still be needed if the young abuser's needs are complex.
In such cases a multi-agency child in ne
7. Multi Agency Child in Need Meetings 3. Response
These procedures are additional to those that apply to all children.
The interests of the identified victim must always be the paramount consideration. However, whenever a child may have abused another, all agencies must be aware of their responsibilities to both individuals and mu
2. Threshold for Referral
Severe harm may be caused to children by abusive and bullying behaviour of other children, which may be physical, sexual or emotional and such abuse must be taken as seriously as abuse perpetrated by an adult.
The same signs and symptoms of abuse that pertain to the
This procedure is additional to the usual procedures for all children and applies when there is an allegation or suspicion that a child has abused or is at risk of abusing another child or adult, including both those:
Outside of the child's immediate household; and
Within her/his hous
See also Information guide: adolescent to parent violence and abuse (APVA) (Home Office)
This chapter was updated in October 2015 when a link to Home Office guidance on Adolescent to Parent Violence and Abuse was added (see above).
6. Criminal Proceedings
The decision as to how to proceed with the criminal aspects of a case will be made by the police and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). This decision will take into account any recommendations of the YOT and the views of other professionals.
Best practice suggests that criminal
A parent's homelessness or placement in temporary accommodation, often at a distance from previous support networks, can result in, or be associated with transient lifestyles.
In these circumstances there is a risk that the family may fall through the net and become disengaged from health,
A Guide to Investigating Child Deaths (College of Policing, 2014)
At all stages of these procedures, practitioners should consider:
Whether a referral for child protection under Section 47 is required;
Sensitivity to the needs of parents and siblings including bereavement
This chapter has been revised in response to publication of Working Together 2018 and Child Death Review Operational Guidance 2018.
Working Together 2018, Chapter 5, identifies the statutory requirements of child death review partners to make arrangements to review the deaths of chil
Coroner's Office and Inquest
HM Coroner in Milton Keynes holds an investigation into all sudden unexpected deaths in childhood and an inquest will be held if a cause of death is not ascertained. The information shared as in the above paragraphs will contribute to this process.
The purpose of an Inquest is
5. Child Death Review Meeting
The focus of each child death review meeting is on the individual child and their death.
Aims of the Child Death Review Meeting:
to review the background history, treatment, and outcomes of investigations, to determine, as far as is possible, the likely cause of death
to ascertain con
2. Immediate Decision-Making and Notification
Within 1 – 2 hours of a child's death, senior professionals involved at that time should:
Identify the available facts about the circumstances of the death
Consider if a Joint Agency Response (JAR) is required, and if so contact the on-call representatives for police, children’s so
8. Abbreviations and Acronyms
Child Abuse Investigation Unit
Care of Next Infant
Children's Social Care
Local Policing Area
Sudden Infant Death
Senior Investigating Officer (Police)
Sudden Unexpected Death of an Infant
7. Membership, Chairing and Expectations of CDOP
- Statutory guidance requires that the CDOP is chaired by someone independent of the key providers (NHS, Social Care, Police) in the area. In Milton Keynes the Child Death Affiliated Board is chaired by the Director of Public Health.
Statutory guidance also requires membership of the CDOP/Ch
6. Child Death Overview Panel/Child Death Board
In Milton Keynes the responsibility for the final analysis of child deaths lies with the Child Death Affiliated Board/CDOP.
To better enable thematic learning and identify potential local safeguarding or health issues that could be modified in order to protect children from har
4. Child Death Review
On receipt of the child death notification information the MK Together Partnership Support Officer will:
Allocate a MK CDOP Unique identifying reference.
Notify the Child Death Board members of the details shared at the time.
Record available details of the child’s death on the Nati
3. Initial Case Review Discussion
The MASH should contacted by the responsible consultant or Duty Detective and an initial Case Review Discussion should be held between the lead professionals (the involved clinician, the senior investigating officer in consultation with the CAIU DI and the MASH at Children's Social C
3. Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)
The following material reproduces the multi-agency protocol signed off in February 2005 by respective senior managers in Thames Valley Police, Probation and the Prison Service.
The protocol revised previous local arrangements following publication of national guidanc
4. Developing Intelligence About Organised or Persistent Offenders
Each Public Protection Unit has an intelligence capability responsible and may:
Collate and disseminate relevant intelligence to local, area and central police databases regarding persons likely to be committing offences against children;
Initiate proactive assessment and tasking plan
For the purposes of child protection, abusive images of children can be divided into:
Those which are unlawful; and would be categorised within category A, B or C of the sentencing council
Material, which although lawful, would give cause for concern and indicate that the person posse
5. Release and Temporary Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences Against Children
- Guidance on Offences against Children can be found by clicking on the following link: GOV.UK.
Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences Against Children
When a prisoner convicted of offences against a child is to be released at the end of her/his sentence the director of Children's
6. Identified Offenders & Others Who May Pose a Risk to Children
Indicators of people who may pose a risk to children include:
Risk to Children Offenders;
Individuals known to have been cautioned / warned / reprimanded in relation to an offence against children;
Individuals against whom there is a previous finding in civil proceedings
2. Register of Sexual Offenders
Notification requirements of Part 2 Sexual Offences Act 2003 (known as the Sex Offenders Register) are an automatic requirement on offenders who receive a conviction or caution for certain sexual offences.
Notification requirements are intended to ensure police are informed of the
7. Visits by Children to High Secure Hospitals & Prisons
High secure (formerly known as special) hospitals have a duty to implement child protection policies, liaise with their safeguarding partnership, provide safe venues for children's visits and provide nominated officers to oversee assessment of whether visits by specific children would
Further information and resources
- UK Council for Internet Safety, Sexting in schools and colleges: Responding to incidents and safeguarding young people (January 2018)
UK Council for Internet Safety Safeguarding children and protecting professionals in early years settings: online safety considerations (February 2019)
Click here for guidance on ‘Young People who Post Self Taken Indecent Images’.
LASSL(2005) 'Identification of Individuals who Present a Risk to Children' appended Home Office Circular 16/2005 which indicated that the use of the term 'Schedule 1 Offender' commonly used to describe those convicted of offences against children should be discontinued and replaced wit
Abusive images may be found in the possession of those who use it for personal use, financial gain or distributed to children as part of the grooming process.
Use of the Internet
For young people, the Internet and associated technologies are an intrinsic part of everyday life, of
In March 2014, this chapter was updated to provide links to the most recent MAPPA guidance issued by the Ministry of Justice and Home Office guidance on Offences against Children.
Where there is suspected or actual evidence of anyone accessing or creating indecent images of children, this must be referred to the Police and Children’s Social Care (CSC) in accordance with the Referral and Assessment Procedure.
Where there are concerns about a child being groo
Organised or complex abuse covers circumstances, which may involve a number of abusers and/or a number of children. The abusers concerned may be acting in concert to abuse a child or children.
One or more of the adults involved may be using an institutional framework or position of
2. General Principles
Cases of organised abuse are often complicated because of the number of children involved, the serious nature of the allegations of abuse, the need for therapeutic input and the complex and time consuming nature of any consequent legal proceedings.
Such cases usually require the fo
3. Initial Strategy Discussion/Meeting
Where there is a suspicion of a 'complex case', the Children's Social Care service and safeguarding managers and the police CAIU inspector must be informed immediately. They should have a management Strategy Discussion/Meeting within the working day the referral is received.
4. Professionals Who Need to be Informed
The head of Children's Social Care must inform the safeguarding partnership chair, director of Children's Social Care, head of the media / press office and senior managers of relevant agencies e.g. designated child protection professionals.
5. Strategic Management Group (SMG)
To ensure a co-ordinated response, a SMG meeting chaired by either Children's Social Care or the police must be convened within 5 working days of the receipt of the referral.
The membership of the group should comprise senior staff able to commit resources and will normally includ
6. Joint Investigation Group
This group led by the CAIU senior investigating officer or the Children's Social Care lead manager, should consist of experienced personnel from CAIU and Children's Social Care - the latter may choose to use independent / agency / outside organisation social workers.
7. Crossing Geographical & Operational Boundaries
It may be recognised at the outset or during the investigation that there are suspected or potential victims in more than one area.
At the outset, the responsibility for managing the investigation lies with the Children's Social Care where the abuse is alleged to have occurred/ whe
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This chapter summarises Safeguarding Children and Young People Who May be Affected by Gang Activity published by the Department for Children, Schools and Families in 2010.
This non-statutory guidance helps frontline practitioners across the children’s workforce unde
- Addressing concerns arising from a young person’s involvement in a gang is a multi-agency issue. Partnership working and information sharing are therefore key to safeguarding children and young people at risk of gang-related harm.
Young people can be put at risk by gang activity both thr
2. Definition of a Gang
- Being part of a friendship group is a normal element of growing up and it can be common for groups of children and young people to gather together in public places to socialise. Although some group gatherings can lead to increased antisocial behaviour and youth offending, these activities
3. Gang-Related Activity - What is the Risk?
- See also Knife, Gun and Gang Related Violence information on the Home Office website.
Local evidence-gathering and profiling of local gang problems will be needed to establish what the risks are in a particular area.
Practitioners should consider the risks to young people involved in gangs
4. Identification and Risk Factors
- There are particular risk factors and triggers that young people experience in their lives that can lead to them becoming involved in gangs. Many of these risk factors are similar to involvement in other harmful activities such as youth offending or violent extremism.
Risk factors for a pe
5. Referral and Assessment
- Anyone with concerns about a young person’s involvement in a gang can contact the NSPCC a 24-hour helpline (0800 800 500).
The helpline is funded by the Home Office is available to help parents, carers or any other adult worried about a child or young person at risk from gang-related act
6. Support and Interventions
- Support and interventions should be proportionate, rational and based on the child’s needs identified during assessment. The diagram on page 28 of the government guidance sets out the areas of intervention for the different tiers of need based on the risk factors identified. These will r
- Self-harm, self-mutilation, suicide threats and gestures by a child must always be taken seriously and may be indicative of a serious mental or emotional disturbance.
- All reports of self harm, attempted self-harm or threats of self harm, including threats of suicide must be taken seriously by all professionals. In most cases of deliberate self harm the young person should be seen as a child in need and offered help via the school counselling service, th
3. Responding to Incidents of Self Harm
- It is good practice, whenever a child/young person is known to have either made a suicide attempt or been involved in self-harming behaviour, to undertake a multi-disciplinary assessment of the strengths, needs and risks to the child. This assessment must include listening carefully to the
This chapter was updated in April 2015, when Section 4, Further Information was added containing links to Guidance for Developing a Local Suicide Prevention Action Plan: Information for Public Health Staff in Local Authorities and a report from the Royal College of Psychiatrists:
4. Further Information
- Royal College of Psychiatrists Managing Self harm in Young People (2014)
Guidance for Developing a Local Suicide Prevention Action Plan: Information for Public Health Staff in Local Authorities (2014)
Milton Keynes Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service
A young carer is a young person under 18 who has a responsibility for caring on a regular basis for a relative (or very occasionally a friend) who has an illness or disability. This can be primary or secondary caring and leads to a variety of losses for the young carer.
3. Interviewing Children
The particular needs of a child who is thought to have communication problems should be considered at an early point in the planning of the enquiry (Strategy Discussionstage).
Professionals should be aware that interviewing is possible when a child communicates by means other than
2. Recognition of Communication Difficulties
When taking a referral, social workers must establish the communication needs of the child / parents and other significant family members. Relevant specialists may need to be consulted e.g. language therapist, teacher of hearing impaired children, paediatrician etc.
The use of acc
All agencies need to ensure a capacity to communicate fully with parents and children when there are concerns about abuse / neglect and to ensure family members and professionals fully understand the exchanges that take place.
4. Using Interpreters With Family Members
If the family's first language is not English and even if they appear reasonably fluent, the offer of an interpreter should be made, as it is essential that all issues are understood and fully explained.
Interpreters used for child protection work should have been subject to refere
This chapter was updated in March 2014. Reference to requiring CRB Checks was removed and replaced with the requirement to carry out a Disclosure and Barring Service Check.
The following may give consent to a paediatric assessment:
A child of sufficient age and understanding i.e. one who is 'Gillick Competent';
Any person with Parental Responsibility;
The local authority when the child is the subject of a Care Order (though the parent/carer should be inf
6. Child Looked After by Originating Authority 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries
Hospital admissions (including rehabilitation / mother and baby units) should not be regarded as a 'move of home'.
The responsible authority remains that within which the patient's home is located except with regard to arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries (see Section 8, Arrangeme
8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries
A local authority has a lawful responsibility to conduct a Section 47 Enquiry regarding suspected or actual Significant Harm to a child who lives, or is found in its area.
The term 'home authority' refers to the authority holding case responsibility, or if the child is not known to
7. Child Subject to Statutory Order in Originating Authority
Attribution of Children's Social Care responsibility
Children subject to a full Care Order or an Interim Care Order remain the responsibility of the originating authority until the order is discharged or expires.
Where a Care Order is in force, the receiving authority may, (and t
6. Child Looked After by Originating Authority
Attribution of Children's Social Care Responsibility
A Looked After Child remains the responsibility of the originating authority until:
S/he is discharged from accommodation; or
Agreement is reached, and confirmed in writing by its team/group manager, that the receiving authority w
5. Child Subject of a Child Protection Plan
When families plan to move they should be made aware that information will be shared with Children's Social Care in the receiving authority.
Where there are significant concerns about a child, the transfer to another authority should not deter the originating authority from initiat
4. Child in Need 'Moves Between Authorities'
This procedure clarifies the:
Responsibilities of the originating and receiving authorities when a child, who is an open child in need case, moves between their geographical areas;
Process the two authorities should follow in making and responding to requests for case transfer.
3. Best Practice for Information Transmission
Particular care must be exercised by all agencies in contact with those moving across boundaries to collect accurate information on any child in need and share this with other agencies e.g.:
Ensuring all forenames and surnames used by the family are provided, and clarification is obta
2. Indicators of Risk
When families move frequently, it can be more difficult for agencies to monitor a child's welfare and identify any risks.
When families move rapidly it is often hard for any one agency to gain a clear understanding of risks. A child may be at risk of abuse and neglect but no agency
5. Child Subject of a Child Protection Plan 1. Introduction
Families who move across local authority boundaries can present difficulties in terms of safe, reliable and consistent delivery of services.
The universal services offered by Health and Children's Services (Education) are a function of the area in which a child is living.
7. Child Subject to Statutory Order in Originating Authority 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries 4. Child in Need 'Moves Between Authorities' 3. Best Practice for Information Transmission 8. Arrangements for Section 47 Enquiries 6. Further Information
- This guidance should be read in the context of the statutory duties upon local authorities and parents as set out in the following:
The Education Act 1996;
The Education Act 2002;
The Children Act 1989;
The Children Act 2004;
Statutory guidance for local authorities: children missing educa
- Anyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding children as described in statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018. Local Authorities have a duty to take all reasonable steps to identify and track children missing from
4. Protection and Action to be Taken
- The Local Authority has a clear process for when a child is missing from education. The first stage is the responsibility of the school, the second the Local Authority.
The school should undertake reasonable actions to identify the whereabouts of the child. This includes telephonin
Anyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding children as described in statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018. Local Authorities have a duty to take all reasonable steps to identify and track children missi
2. Risks - Who is at Greatest Risk and Why?
- Children fall out of the education system because they:
Fail to start appropriate provision and therefore never enter the system;
Cease to attend due to exclusion (e.g. unofficial exclusions) or withdrawal;
Fail to make the transition between schools within or across the Local Authority ar
1. Definition - What do we mean by Children Missing from Education?
- “Children missing education are defined as children of compulsory school age who are not on a school roll, and who are not receiving a suitable education elsewhere: for example, at home, privately, or in alternative provision. They fall into two broad categories.
Those whose whereabouts
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This chapter contains information for professionals who become aware of children who are not on a school roll or being educated otherwise or have been out of any educational provision for a substantial period of time. It reflects the 2015 Statutory Guidance for local
2. Risks - Who is at Greatest Risk and Why? 4. Protection and Action to be Taken 1. Definition - What do we mean by Children Missing from Education?
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This guidance applies to all professionals in Milton Keynes to:
assist with safe and effective disclosures of domestic abuse
promote access to specialist services and support
Female Genital Mutilation Procedure
In 2020 this chapter was fully
7. Supporting legislation
- Clare’s Law to make enquiry on someone’s history if they may pose a risk. Details available at:https://www.thamesvalley.police.uk/advice/advice-and-information/daa/domestic-abuse/af/clares-law/
Serious Crime Act 2015 controlling and coercive behaviour became criminal offence. Controlli
3. How can I help as a professional?
- Key steps to follow to ensure you respond appropriately include:
This question should also be asked in ways that accommodate those with learning disabilities. For example: “Have you been upset because someone talked to you in a way that made you feel ashamed or threatened?”, “Has
- Signposting alone may not be effective since the victim will have limited opportunities to access support. Consider making a referral on the patient/client/service users’ behalf. Online referral forms can be accessed from Milton Keynes Council by clicking on the following link: http
5. Specialist Services
- MK Act supports people experiencing domestic abuse focusing on medium and high risk victims. They provide refuge, a crisis intervention service (risk assessment and safety planning), perpetrator programme and peer support programmes. http://www.mkact.com/
Victims First Hub offers emotional
- Organisations are responsible for requesting and receiving training. MK Act offers a multi-agency programme and individual sessions for teams. For details contact Training@mk-act.org
1. What is domestic abuse? 7. Supporting legislation 2. What are possible signs? 3. How can I help as a professional? 2. What are possible signs?
- Evidence of single or repeated injuries with unlikely explanations
Frequent use of prescribed pain medication
Injuries to the breast, chest and abdomen especially during pregnancy
Evidence of sexual or frequent gynaecological problems
Frequent visits to GP with vague complaints or symptoms
1. What is domestic abuse?
- Domestic abuse is an incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening, degrading and violent behaviour, including sexual violence, in the majority of cases by a partner or ex-partner, but also by a family member or carer.
Domestic abuse can include, but is not limited
For additional guidance please see Safeguarding Disabled Children: Practice Guidance, which was published by the DCSF in July 2009.
The above guidance refers to UK evidence which suggests that disabled children are at increased risk of abuse and that the presence of multiple disabilities a
3. Indicators Which Should Alert Professionals to Possible FII 16. Supervision and Support
- It is acknowledged that working with families where it is suspected that illness is fabricated or induced is demanding, and can be distressing and stressful.
Agencies should have a supervision policy, which identifies how, where and when staff can access supervision about such cases. Eve
- Children Act 1989
Safeguarding Children in Whom Illness is Fabricated or Induced. (2009, RCPCH)
Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, October 2009, Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers
Fabricated or induced illness in children: a rare form of child abuse? NSPCC Research Briefin
Appendix 1: Preparing a FII Chronology
- The information available to a meeting about a possible case of Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is enormous and can be difficult to organise. As complete a picture of the concerns is essential. All information will need examining, and the integrating of all reports will be necessary. I
Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
- Click here to view Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template.
Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
Warning Signs of Fabricated or Induced Illness
Reported symptoms and signs found on examination are not explained
Reported symptoms and signs found on examination are not explained by any medical condition from which the child may be suffering. Here the doctor is attempting to
4. How is the Child Harmed? 14. Roles and Responsibilities
- A clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of others is essential for effective collaboration. Joint working is essential.
Health professionals may feel a conflict of loyalty, especially when their primary patient is not the child. However the primary concern should a
9. Referral to Children's Social Care 16. Supervision and Support Appendix 1: Preparing a FII Chronology Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template Appendix 2: FII Chronology Template
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This policy applies to all staff working in Milton Keynes agencies whose work brings them into contact with children and families, and should be used as a means of bringing about better outcomes for children and young people. It outlines the procedures to follow when
15. Record Keeping
- Good record keeping is paramount to good practice and is an important part of accountability of professionals. Clear and accurate records ensure that there is a documented account of an agency, or professional's involvement with a child and/or family. Records are an essential source of evi
13. Police Investigation
- Any evidence gathered by the police should be available to other relevant professionals to inform discussions and decisions about the child’s welfare and contribute to the section 47 enquiry and Child and Family Single Assessment unless this is likely to prejudice criminal proceedings.
6. Barriers to the Identification of FII
- The following approaches and attitudes can be a barrier to the identification of FII:
Failure to recognise the spectrum of cases that fall within the remit of FII;
Always thinking the best of parents;
Failure to corroborate the history offered by the parent/ carer;
11. Section 47 Enquiries (as part of Child and Family Assessment) 12. Initial Child Protection Conference
- If it is deemed necessary that a child protection conference is required the timing of the conference will depend on the urgency of the case and time needed to obtain relevant information. If a decision is made at Strategy Meeting for Initial Child Protection Conference (ICPC) to be held
12. Initial Child Protection Conference 14. Roles and Responsibilities 7. Managing an Individual Case 6. Barriers to the Identification of FII 1. Introduction
- This document is based on 'Safeguarding Children in Whom Illness is Fabricated or Induced' DoH 2008.
The objective of this document is to provide clarity to professionals on how to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in who fabricated or induced illnes
2. Recognition of FII
- Cases of FII may present in an acute situation in hospital or more commonly there may be a chronic evolution with frequent presentations of exaggeration or fabrication in a range of settings.
Health professionals such as doctors (particularly General Practitioners or Paediatricians), healt
4. How is the Child Harmed?
- In fabricated illness the perpetrator does not directly harm the child. The carer actively promotes the sick role by exaggeration or fabrication (lying) of symptoms. The harm caused to the child can be significant and may include:
Frequent and invasive medical investigations;
- There is no such thing as a typical perpetrator. Various studies have highlighted the following characteristics:
Is often the mother;
Often has a current/ previous psychiatric history of anxiety, depression, self harm, eating disorder or past history of FII;
May alternate between presentin
3. Indicators Which Should Alert Professionals to Possible FII
- A carer reporting symptoms and observed signs that are not explained by any known medical condition;
Physical examination and results of medical investigations that do not explain symptoms or signs reported by the carer;
There is an inexplicably poor response to prescribed medication or ot
7. Managing an Individual Case
- Acting on emerging concerns
Concerns could arise as a result from your own professional judgement, talking to colleagues or professionals from other agencies. As soon as concerns about FII arise, concerns should be documented in an accurate and factual manner differentiating between opinio
11. Section 47 Enquiries (as part of Child and Family Assessment)
- Children’s Social Care will undertake the Child and Family Assessment, which will include the gathering of information about the history of the child and each family member. Emphasis should be given to both physical and mental health of family members, education and employment as well as
10. Strategy Meeting
- At a minimum the meeting requires the involvement of:
Children’s Social Care;
Child Abuse Investigation Unit (CAIU);
Responsible paediatric consultant.
The following professionals should be invited if appropriate:
Senior ward nurse if child is an in-patient;
Named Nurse Child Protection;
8. Medical Evaluation
- When the child is acutely ill and significant harm has occurred or there are concerns that the child is at risk of such harm and safety is an issue the child should be admitted for close observation until medical evaluation is complete.
Where the child’s health and safety is more secure
9. Referral to Children's Social Care
- When a possible explanation for the signs and symptoms is that they may have been fabricated or induced by a carer and as a consequence the child’s health or development is or is likely to be impaired, a referral should be made to Children’s Social Care.
A referral may follow:
14. Further Advice
- Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Helpline
In June 2013, a new helpline was launched, with the aim of protecting children in the UK from FGM. The helpline is open 24 hours a day, phone 0800 028 3550 or by email firstname.lastname@example.org. The service, which is anonymous, offers support to anyone
14. Further Advice
- Other useful contacts are:
2. Cultural Underpinnings 10. Responding to FGM: Non-immediate Concern about a Child – Referral to Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel
- If a professional suspects that a child may be at risk of FGM, the MK FGM Screening Tool should be used to identify the relevant risk factors and record the evidence behind the concerns.
Having completed the screening tool, if the risks do not appear to be immediate, or if the professiona
3. Types of Female Genital Mutilation and Procedures 4. Implications of Female Genital Mutilation for a Child's Health and Welfare 6. NHS Actions
- Since April 2014 NHS hospitals have been required to record:
If a patient has had Female Genital Mutilation;
If there is a family history of Female Genital Mutilation;
If a Female Genital Mutilation-related procedure has been carried out on a patient.
Since September 2014 all acute hospit
7. Mandatory Reporting of FGM 8. Identifying a Child who is at Risk of FGM or who may have been Subjected to FGM Using the FGM Screening Tool 9. Responding to FGM: Immediate Concern about a Child at Risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM - Referral to Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub 11. Physical and Mental Health Care and Treatment Pathway for those affected by FGM
- Any professional in contact with members of the public may meet women or young people with FGM who are seeking advice or help. In this circumstance, the professional or volunteer should assist the woman/young person to make contact with a healthcare professional. This may not be straightfo
10. Responding to FGM: Non-immediate Concern about a Child – Referral to Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel
These procedures should be read in conjunction with the following:
MK FGM Screening Tool
Flowchart for Responding to Women who has undergone FGM
Safeguarding Flowchart for Managing Child at Risk of Being Abused through FGM or May Have Been Subjected to FGM
11. Physical and Mental Health Care and Treatment Pathway for those affected by FGM 12. Monthly Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel Meetings 13. Reducing the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation 9. Responding to FGM: Immediate Concern about a Child at Risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM - Referral to Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub
- See Flowchart: ‘Child/Young Person – Risk of FGM Identified/Subject of FGM’.
Where there has been an immediate concern about a child at risk of FGM or that may have undergone FGM a referral to Children’s Social Care via the Milton Keynes Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MK MASH). A c
12. Monthly Multi-Agency FGM Consultation Panel Meetings
- The monthly multi-agency FGM Consultation Panel meetings provide the opportunity for professionals to discuss and assess the risk factors in the case (using the MK FGM screening tool) and come to a consensus about the appropriate course of action and whether there are safeguarding concerns
13. Reducing the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation
- The MK Together Partnership is committed to promoting awareness in the local area, particularly amongst local communities which practice FGM, that female genital mutilation is abusive to children and not legal in the UK.
1. Legal Status
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines female genital mutilation (FGM) as: "all procedures (not operations) which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons" (WHO, 1996)
2. Cultural Underpinnings
- Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a complex issue. Despite the harm it causes, many women from FGM practising communities consider FGM normal to protect their cultural identity.
Although FGM is practised by secular communities, it is most often claimed to be carried out in accordance with
3. Types of Female Genital Mutilation and Procedures
- Female Genital Mutilation and other terms has been classified by the WHO (World Health Organisation) into four types:
Type 1: Clitoridectomy Excision of the prepuce with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.
Type 2: Excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of
4. Implications of Female Genital Mutilation for a Child's Health and Welfare
- The health implications for a child of the FGM procedure can be severe to fatal, depending on the type of FGM carried out.
As with all forms of child abuse or trauma, the impact of FGM on a child will depend upon such factors as:
The severity and nature of the violence;
The individual chil
5. Professional Response
- There are four circumstances relating to FGM which require identification, assessment and possible intervention.
Where a child is at risk of FGM;
Where a child has been abused through FGM;
Where a pregnant woman has undergone FGM.
Where a non-pregnant woman over 18 has undergone FGM
7. Mandatory Reporting of FGM
- From the 31st October 2015, regulated professionals in health and social care professions and teachers in England and Wales have a duty to report ‘known’ cases of FGM in under 18s which they identify in the course of their professional work to the police.
‘Known’ cases are those
8. Identifying a Child who is at Risk of FGM or who may have been Subjected to FGM Using the FGM Screening Tool
- A FGM Screening Tool is available to download from the Resources page of the MK Together website. The aim of the FGM screening tool is to assist all professionals in identifying children at risk of being abused through FGM, or children who may have been subjected to FGM. The screening to
This chapter outlines the key points in relation to forced marriage.
5. Legal Position
- The minimum age at which a person is able to give consent to marriage is 16; a person between the ages of 16 and 18 may not marry without consent from all those with Parental Responsibility (unless the young person is a widow or widower).
Legislation on Forced Marriage
The Anti-social Beha
- Nationally, hundreds of young people (particularly girls and young women) some as young as 13 are forced into marriage each year. Some are taken overseas to marry whilst others may be married in the UK.
Forced marriage is not the same as an arranged marriage in which both spouses can choos
2. Potential Warning Signs or Indicators
- Surveillance by siblings or cousins at school;
Decline in behaviour, engagement, performance or punctuality at school;
Not allowed to attend extra curricular activities or go on to further/higher education;
Illness of grandparents or relatives in country of origin;
Request for extended lea
3. The "One Chance" Rule
- All practitioners working with victims of forced marriage and honour-based violence need to be aware of the “one chance” rule. That is, they may only have one chance to speak to a potential victim and thus they may only have one chance to save a life. This means that all practitioners
4. What To Do if a Child or Young Person is Facing Forced Marriage
- Practitioners should:
See the child or young person immediately in a secure and private place where the conversation cannot be overheard;
See them on their own - even if they attend with others;
Obtain details of the child or young person under threat including:
Their full name;
Age and da
7. Strategies to improve Engagement
- Every professional contact with the family is part of the engagement process; this includes that first letter and telephone call to the family and young person.
Is there previous information on the family, has an Early Help Assessment been completed, is there aLead Professional that can ai
3. Definition and Recognising Difficult to Engage Behaviour
- Parents may present in a number of ways on a continuum from hostility, threats and violence through to superficial and ineffective engagement. Behaviours may include:
Ambivalence can be displayed when people are consistently late for planned appointments or they always have an excuse for m
10. Hard to Engage Professionals Meetings (at time this will be a Strategy Meeting or Family Support Meeting instead) 10. Hard to Engage Professionals Meetings (at time this will be a Strategy Meeting or Family Support Meeting instead)
- If the family is still not engaging when everything has been done to aid the process a child protection consultation should be considered with a child protection coordinator and a hard to engage professionals meeting should be convened.
No sole agency works in isolation and non engagement
9. Dealings with Hostility and Violence
- However sensitive and supportive you are as a worker some families will still respond with threats of violence. In these instances it is important that you follow internal Health and Safety procedures as well as continued support from your line manager. Professionals and the child's safety
- A feature in some serious case reviews has been the lack of co-operation and/or hostile attitude of parents/carers. When there are child welfare/protection issues, a failure to engage with the family may have serious implications and non-intervention is not an option.
8. When Families will not Engage at all
- The problems arising from these difficulties may be acute or chronic in nature. They may, in some cases, mean that long-term work proceeds more slowly than it might, whilst in another, failing to see a child as planned might mean that the child is exposed to immediate and pressing risk. It
2. Reasons Why Some Families Find it Difficult to Engage
- Some of the reasons why families find it difficult to engage include the following:
Previous negative experience of agencies;
Experience of intervention as a young person;
Not understanding professionals concerns;
Genuine fear- will my children be removed;
6. Impact on the child
- It is important to consider what impact the non engagement may be having on the life of the child. Is the child desensitised to what is going on around them? What have you or other professionals observed when you have seen the family together. How does the child act around the parents are
5. Important Points to Consider
- It is useful to reflect on your own practice to consider the following;
Am I colluding by avoiding conflict i.e. focusing on less contentious issues rather than asking to see if there is food in the house or speak to a child alone etc?
Am I minimising negative information in order to avoid
4. Impact on Intervention
- Accurate information and clear understanding of what is happening to a child is the main focus of all work with families, the usual way to achieve this is by engagement and sharing views and working in partnership with families to plan the next step. However if families are deliberately pr
Download the MK Together Safer, Happier, Healthier Partnership Handbook 2019/20
2. Relevant Law & Government Requirements
- The main sources of law and other relevant requirements with respect to information sharing and confidentiality in child protection are the:
Common law duty of confidence;
European Convention on Human Rights (via its introduction into English law in the Human Rights Act 1998);
This chapter was updated in October 2015 to include links to new Department for Education Guidance on Information Sharing.
7. The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme
- The Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme (DVDS) commenced on 8 March 2014. The DVDS gives members of the public a formal mechanism to make enquires about an individual who they are in a relationship with, or who is in a relationship with someone they know, where there is a concern that th
6. Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme
- The Child Sex Offender Review (CSOR) Disclosure Scheme is designed to provide members of the public with a formal mechanism to ask for disclosure about people they are concerned about, who have unsupervised access to children and may therefore pose a risk. This scheme builds on existing, w
- 5.1 Access Rights of Data Subjects
If a party to this agreement receives a subject access application under section 7 of the Data Protection Act and personal data is identified as having originated from another signatory agency, it will be the responsibility of the receiving agency to cont
4. Practice Requirements for Information Transfer
- The net result of legislation and worker guidance as summarised above is that workers may share information for a child protection purpose without the consent of the subject:
To protect the vital interests of the person;
Where seeking permission might place the child or another person at s
3. Further Guidance for the Children's Workforce
- See 'What To Do If You're Worried a Child is Being Abused'.
1. Local Context and Justification for Sharing Information
- Information sharing guidance is designed to help every worker be able be confident about sharing share in relation to vulnerable children.
Research and experience have demonstrated that to keep children safe from harm it is essential that workers maximise the potential for safe partnership
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